Norovirus infection risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Risk factors for norovirus infection include close contact with infected individuals, particularly those in the same household, poor food-handling hygiene, and consumption of contaminated shellfish and/or raw vegetables.

Risk Factors

The following factors increase the risk of contracting norovirus, particularly during outbreaks:[1][2]

  • Poor food-handling hygiene
  • Poor hand hygiene
  • Shared food
  • Close contact with person with recent or current history of norovirus infection.
  • Ingestion of raw or insufficiently steamed shellfish and raw vegetables (Shellfish and salad ingredients are the foods most often implicated in outbreaks)


  1. Parashar UD, Monroe SS (2001). ""Norwalk-like viruses" as a cause of foodborne disease outbreaks". Rev. Med. Virol. 11 (4): 243–52. doi:10.1002/rmv.321. PMID 11479930.
  2. de Wit MA, Koopmans MP, van Duynhoven YT (2003). "Risk factors for norovirus, Sapporo-like virus, and group A rotavirus gastroenteritis". Emerg Infect Dis. 9 (12): 1563–70. doi:10.3201/eid0912.020076. PMC 3034344. PMID 14720397.

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