Metaxalone

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Metaxalone
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Metaxalone is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of musculoskeletal pain. Common adverse reactions include drug-induced gastrointestinal disturbance, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, somnolence, feeling nervous.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Musculoskeletal pain
  • Dosing Information
  • Metaxalone is indicated as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomforts associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. The mode of action of this drug has not been clearly identified, but may be related to its sedative properties. Metaxalone does not directly relax tense skeletal muscles in man.
  • The recommended dose for adults is one 800 mg tablet three to four times a day.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Metaxalone in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Metaxalone in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Musculoskeletal pain
  • Dosing Information
  • The recommended dose for children over 12 years of age is one 800 mg tablet three to four times a day.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Metaxalone in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Metaxalone in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

Precautions

  • Metaxalone should be administered with great care to patients with pre-existing liver damage. Serial liver function studies should be performed in these patients.
  • False-positive Benedict’s tests, due to an unknown reducing substance, have been noted. A glucose-specific test will differentiate findings.
  • Taking metaxalone with food may enhance general CNS depression; elderly patients may be especially susceptible to this CNS effect.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • The most frequent reactions to metaxalone include:
CNS

Drowsiness, dizziness, headache, and nervousness or “irritability”;

Digestive

Nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal upset.

  • Other adverse reactions are:
Immune System

Hypersensitivity reaction, rash with or without pruritus;

Hematologic

Leukopenia; hemolytic anemia;

Hepatobiliary

Jaundice.

  • Though rare, anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with metaxalone.

Postmarketing Experience

There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience of Metaxalone in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category
  • Reproduction studies in rats have not revealed evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to metaxalone. Post marketing experience has not revealed evidence of fetal injury, but such experience cannot exclude the possibility of infrequent or subtle damage to the human fetus. Safe use of metaxalone has not been established with regard to possible adverse effects upon fetal development. Therefore, metaxalone tablets should not be used in women who are or may become pregnant and particularly during early pregnancy unless, in the judgement of the physician, the potential benefits outweigh the possible hazards.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Metaxalone in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Metaxalone during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • It is not known whether this drug is secreted in human milk. As a general rule, nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is on a drug since many drugs are excreted in human milk.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness in children 12 years of age and below have not been established.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Metaxalone with respect to geriatric patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Metaxalone with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Metaxalone with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Metaxalone in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Metaxalone in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Metaxalone in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Metaxalone in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Metaxalone in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Metaxalone in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

  • Deaths by deliberate or accidental overdose have occurred with metaxalone, particularly in combination with antidepressants, and have been reported with this class of drug in combination with alcohol.
  • When determining the LD50 in rats and mice, progressive sedation, hypnosis and finally respiratory failure were noted as the dosage increased. In dogs, no LD50 could be determined as the higher doses produced an emetic action in 15 to 30 minutes.

Management

  • Gastric lavage and supportive therapy. Consultation with a regional poison control center is recommended.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Metaxalone in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Metaxalone.png
Metaxalone
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-[(3,5-dimethylphenoxy)methyl]-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one
Identifiers
CAS number 1665-48-1
ATC code none
PubChem 15459
DrugBank DB00660
Chemical data
Formula C12H15NO3 
Mol. mass 221.252 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Unknown
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 9.2 (± 4.8) hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US)

Legal status

-only(US)

Routes Oral

Mechanism of Action

Structure

  • Metaxalone is available as an 800 mg, light pink to pink, capsule shaped, scored uncoated tablet.
  • Chemically, metaxalone is 5-[(3,5- dimethylphenoxy) methyl]-2-oxazolidinone. The empirical formula is C12H15NO3, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 221.25. The structural formula is:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Metaxalone is a white to almost white, odorless crystalline powder freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in methanol and in 96% ethanol, but practically insoluble in ether or water.
  • Each tablet contains 800 mg metaxalone and the following inactive ingredients: calcium carbonate, FD&C Red #40, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, silicone dioxide, sodium starch glycolate and sodium stearyl fumarate.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Metaxalone in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • The pharmacokinetics of metaxalone have been evaluated in healthy adult volunteers after single dose administration of metaxalone under fasted and fed conditions at doses ranging from 400 mg to 800 mg.
  • Absorption
  • Peak plasma concentrations of metaxalone occur approximately 3 hours after a 400 mg oral dose under fasted conditions. Thereafter, metaxalone concentrations decline log-linearly with a terminal half-life of 9.0 ± 4.8 hours. Doubling the dose of metaxalone from 400 mg to 800 mg results in a roughly proportional increase in metaxalone exposure as indicated by peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC). Dose proportionality at doses above 800 mg has not been studied. The absolute bioavailability of metaxalone is not known.
  • The single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of metaxalone in two groups of healthy volunteers are shown in Table 1.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Food Effects
  • A randomized, two-way, crossover study was conducted in 42 healthy volunteers (31 males, 11 females) administered one 400 mg metaxalone tablet under fasted conditions and following a standard high-fat breakfast. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 48 years (mean age = 23.5 ± 5.7 years). Compared to fasted conditions, the presence of a high fat meal at the time of drug administration increased Cmax by 177.5% and increased AUC (AUC0-t, AUC∞) by 123.5% and 115.4%, respectively. Time-to-peak concentration (Tmax) was also delayed (4.3 h versus 3.3 h) and terminal half-life was decreased (2.4 h versus 9.0 h) under fed conditions compared to fasted.
  • In a second food effect study of similar design, two 400 mg metaxalone tablets (800 mg) were administered to healthy volunteers (N=59, 37 males, 22 females), ranging in age from 18 to 50 years (mean age = 25.6± 8.7 years). Compared to fasted conditions, the presence of a high fat meal at the time of drug administration increased Cmax by 193.6% and increased AUC (AUC0-t, AUC∞) by 146.4% and 142.2%, respectively. Time-to-peak concentration (Tmax) was also delayed (4.9 h versus 3.0 h) and terminal half-life was decreased (4.2 h versus 8.0 h) under fed conditions compared to fasted conditions. Similar food effect results were observed in the above study when one metaxalone 800 mg tablet was administered in place of two metaxalone 400 mg tablets. The increase in metaxalone exposure coinciding with a reduction in half-life may be attributed to more complete absorption of metaxalone in the presence of a high fat meal (Figure 1).
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
  • Although plasma protein binding and absolute bioavailability of metaxalone are not known, the apparent volume of distribution (V/F ~ 800 L) and lipophilicity (log P = 2.42) of metaxalone suggest that the drug is extensively distributed in the tissues. Metaxalone is metabolized by the liver and excreted in the urine as unidentified metabolites. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in the metabolism of metaxalone. Specifically, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 and, to a lesser extent, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 appear to metabolize metaxalone.
  • Metaxalone does not significantly inhibit major CYP enzymes such as CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. Metaxalone does not significantly induce major CYP enzymes such as CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in vitro.
  • Pharmacokinetics in Special Populations
  • Age:
  • The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of metaxalone were determined following single administration of two 400 mg tablets (800 mg) under fasted and fed conditions. The results were analyzed separately, as well as in combination with the results from three other studies. Using the combined data, the results indicate that the pharmacokinetics of metaxalone are significantly more affected by age under fasted conditions than under fed conditions, with bioavailability under fasted conditions increasing with age.
  • The bioavailability of metaxalone under fasted and fed conditions in three groups of healthy volunteers of varying age is shown in Table 2.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Gender:
  • The effect of gender on the pharmacokinetics of metaxalone was assessed in an open label study, in which 48 healthy adult volunteers (24 males, 24 females) were administered two metaxalone 400 mg tablets (800 mg) under fasted conditions. The bioavailability of metaxalone was significantly higher in females compared to males as evidenced by Cmax (2115 ng/mL versus 1335 ng/mL) and AUC∞ (17884 ng·h/mL versus 10328 ng·h/mL). The mean half-life was 11.1 hours in females and 7.6 hours in males. The apparent volume of distribution of metaxalone was approximately 22% higher in males than in females, but not significantly different when adjusted for body weight. Similar findings were also seen when the previously described combined dataset was used in the analysis.
  • The impact of hepatic and renal disease on the pharmacokinetics of metaxalone has not been determined. In the absence of such information, metaxalone should be used with caution in patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment.

Nonclinical Toxicology

There is limited information regarding Nonclinical Toxicology of Metaxalone in the drug label.

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies of Metaxalone in the drug label.

How Supplied

  • Metaxalone is available as an 800 mg, light pink to pink, capsule shaped, scored uncoated tablet with debossing ‘AN’ on the left side of the scoring and ‘553’ on the right side of the scoring. Other side of the tablet is plain.
  • They are available as follows:
  • Bottles of 100: NDC 68001-004-00
  • Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).

Storage

There is limited information regarding Metaxalone Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

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Package and Label Display Panel

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This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
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This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • Metaxalone may impair mental and/or physical abilities required for performance of hazardous tasks, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle, especially when used with alcohol or other CNS depressants.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Metaxalone interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • METAXALONE®[1]

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Metaxalone Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "METAXALONE metaxalone tablet".

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