Metachromatic leukodystrophy

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:

Synonyms and Keywords: Arylsulfatase A deficiency

Overview

Metachromatic leukodystrophy is the most common form of a family of genetic diseases known as the leukodystrophies, diseases which affect the growth and/or development of myelin, the fatty covering which acts as an insulator around nerve fibres throughout the central and peripherial nervous systems .

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Gene Therapy

  • two trials are in the planning stages in Europe, one in Italy and one in France

Clinical trial updates provided by the MLD Foundation

Causes

MLD is directly caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase A. Without this enzyme, sulfatides build up in many tissues of the body, eventually destroying the myelin of the nervous system.

Differentiating Metachromatic leukodystrophy from Other Diseases

Differential diagnosis

Metachromatic leukodystrophy must be differentiated from other diseases that cause neurological manifestations in infants.

Diseases Type of motor abnormality Clinical findings Laboratory findings and diagnostic tests Radiographic findings
Spasticity Hypotonia Ataxia Dystonia
Leigh syndrome - - + +
Niemann-Pick disease type C - - + +
  • Abnormal liver function tests
  • Fibroblast cell culture with filipin staining
Infantile Refsum disease - + + - Elevated plasma VLCFA levels --
Adrenoleukodystrophy + - - -
  • Elevated plasma VLCFA levels
  • Molecular genetic testing for mutations in the ABCD1 gene
--
Zellweger syndrome - + - - --
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency + + + -
  • Elevated lactate and pyruvate levels in blood and CSF
  • Abnormal PDH enzymatic activity in cultured fibroblasts
--
Arginase deficiency + - - - --
Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency - + - - Elevated levels of:
  • Beta-hydroxyisovalerate
  • Beta-methylcrotonylglycine
  • Beta-hydroxypropionate
  • Methylcitrate
  • Tiglylglycine
--
Glutaric aciduria type 1 - - - + Elevated levels of:
Ataxia telangiectasia - - + - --
Pontocerebellar hypoplasias - + - - Genetic testing for PCH gene mutations
Metachromatic leukodystrophy - + + -
  • Deficient arylsulfatase A enzyme activity in leukocytes or cultured skin fibroblasts
--
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher + - + -
Angelman syndrome - - + -
  • Methylation studies and chromosome microarray to detect chromosome 15 anomalies and UBE3A mutations
--
Rett syndrome + - - +
  • Occurs almost exclusively in females
  • Normal development during first six months followed by regression and loss of milestones
  • Loss of speech capability
  • Stereotypic hand movements
  • Seizures
  • Autistic features
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Genetic testing for MECP2 mutations
--
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome + - - + --
Miller-Dieker lissencephaly + + - -
  • Cytogenetic testing for 17p13.3 microdeletion
--
Dopa-responsive dystonia + - - +
  • Onset in early childhood
  • Symptoms worsen with fatigue and exercise
  • Positive response to a trial of levodopa
--

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History

Complications

Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Like many other genetic disorders that affect lipid metabolism, there are several forms of MLD, which are late infantile, juvenile, and adult.

In the late infantile form, which is the most common form MLD, affected children begin having difficulty walking after the first year of life. Symptoms include muscle wasting and weakness, muscle rigidity, developmental delays, progressive loss of vision leading to blindness, convulsions, impaired swallowing, paralysis, and dementia. Children may become comatose. Untreated, most children with this form of MLD die by age 5, often much sooner.

Children with the juvenile form of MLD (onset between 3-10 years of age) usually begin with impaired school performance, mental deterioration, and dementia and then develop symptoms similar to the late infantile form but with slower progression. Age of death is variable, but normally within 10 to 15 years of symptom onset.

The adult form commonly begins after age 16 as a psychiatric disorder or progressive dementia. Adult-onset MLD progresses more slowly than the late infantile and juvenile forms, with a protracted course of a decade or more.

In rare cases the body can compensate for the deficiency and the person will exhibit no symptoms.

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

There is no cure for MLD, nor a standard form of treatment. Children with advanced juvenile or adult onset, and late infantile patients displaying symptoms have treatment limited to pain and symptom management. Presymptomatic late infantile MLD patients, as well as those with juvenile or adult MLD that are either presymptomatic or displaying mild to moderate symptoms, have the option of bone marrow transplantation (including stem cell transplantation), which may slow down the progression of the disease, or stop its progression in the central nervous system, however results in the peripheral nervous system have been less dramatic.

Treatment options for the future that are currently being investigated include gene therapy and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), and potentially a enzyme enhancement therapy (EET).

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Prevention

Future or Investigational Therapies

Clinical Trials

Enzyme Replacement Therapy

  • Phase II clinical trials are underway in Europe by a Danish company, Zymenex, using Metazym, (updated August 2007)
  • Shire Human Genetics is proposing an enzyme replacement therapy

See also

External links

References

fi:Metakromaattinen leukodystrofia



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