Mechanical ventilation modification of settings

Jump to: navigation, search

Mechanical ventilation Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Types of Ventilators

Indications for Use

Ventilator variables

Choosing Amongst Ventilator Modes

Initial Ventilator Settings

Protocol

Complications

Modification of Settings

Connection to Ventilators

Terminology

Mechanical ventilation modification of settings On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Mechanical ventilation modification of settings

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Mechanical ventilation modification of settings

CDC on Mechanical ventilation modification of settings

Mechanical ventilation modification of settings in the news

Blogs on Mechanical ventilation modification of settings

Directions to Hospitals Treating Mechanical ventilation

Risk calculators and risk factors for Mechanical ventilation modification of settings

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vishnu Vardhan Serla M.B.B.S. [2] Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [3]

Overview

In adults when 100% FiO2 is used initially, it is easy to calculate the next FiO2 to be used and easy to estimate the shunt fraction. When using 100% FiO2, the degree of shunting is estimated by subtracting the measured PaO2 (from an arterial blood gas) from 700 mmHg. For each difference of 100 mmHg, the shunt is 5%. A shunt of more than 25% should prompt a search for the cause of this hypoxemia, such as mainstem intubation or pneumothorax, and should be treated accordingly. Patients should have their ventilation considered for withdrawal if they are able to support their own ventilation and oxygenation, and this should be assessed continuously. Specific clinical, ventilator and oxygenation criteria should be met in order to do a trial of spontaneous breathing in mechanically ventilated patients.

Modification of Settings

  • Modification of ventilator settings:[1][2][3][4]
  • In adults when 100% FiO2 is used initially, it is easy to calculate the next FiO2 to be used and easy to estimate the shunt fraction.
  • The estimated shunt fraction refers to the amount of oxygen not being absorbed into the circulation.
  • In normal physiology, gas exchange (oxygen/carbon dioxide) occurs at the level of the alveoli in the lungs.
  • The existence of a shunt refers to any process that hinders this gas exchange, leading to wasted oxygen inspired and the flow of unoxygenated blood back to the left heart (which ultimately supplies the rest of the body with unoxygenated blood).
  • When using 100% FiO2, the degree of shunting is estimated by subtracting the measured PaO2 (from an arterial blood gas) from 700 mmHg. For each difference of 100 mmHg, the shunt is 5%.
  • A shunt of more than 25% should prompt a search for the cause of this hypoxemia, such as mainstem intubation or pneumothorax, and should be treated accordingly.
  • If such complications are not present, other causes must be sought after, and PEEP should be used to treat this intrapulmonary shunt. Other such causes of a shunt include:

When to Withdraw Mechanical Ventilation

  • Withdrawal from mechanical ventilation (also known as weaning) should not be delayed unnecessarily, nor should it be done prematurely.
  • Patients should have their ventilation considered for withdrawal if they are able to support their own ventilation and oxygenation, and this should be assessed continuously.

Clinical criteria

  • Resolution of acute phase of disease
  • Adequate cough reflex
  • No excessive secretions
  • Hemodynamic stability

Ventilator criteria

  • PaCO2 < 50 mm Hg
  • Vital capacity > 10 ml/Kg
  • Spontaneous tidal volume > 5 ml/Kg
  • Spontaneous respiratory rate (f) < 35/min
  • f/Vt <100 breaths/ml/min
  • Minute ventilation < 10 L with ABGs within normal limits

Oxygenation criteria

  • PaO2 without PEEP > 60 mm Hg at FiO2 0.4
  • PaO2 with PEEP (< 8 cm H2O) > 100 m Hg at FiO2 0.4
  • SaO2 > 90% at FiO2 0.4
  • PaO2/FiO2 greater than equal to 150
  • P(A-a)O2 < 350 mm Hg at FiO2 1.0

Non-Invasive Ventilation (Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation or NIPPV)

  • This refers to all modalities that assist ventilation without the use of an endotracheal tube.
  • Non-invasive ventilation is primarily aimed at minimizing patient discomfort and the complications associated with invasive ventilation.
  • It is often used in cardiac disease, exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, and neuromuscular diseases.
  • Non-invasive ventilation refers only to the patient interface and not the mode of ventilation used; modes may include spontaneous or control modes and may be either pressure or volume modes.

References

  1. Bordes J, Erwan d, Savoie PH, Montcriol A, Goutorbe P, Kaiser E (September 2014). "FiO2 delivered by a turbine portable ventilator with an oxygen concentrator in an Austere environment". J Emerg Med. 47 (3): 306–12. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.04.033. PMID 24950943. Vancouver style error: initials (help)
  2. d'Aranda E, Bordes J, Bourgeois B, Clay J, Esnault P, Cungi PJ, Goutorbe P, Kaiser E, Meaudre E (2016). "Fraction of Inspired Oxygen Delivered by Elisée™ 350 Turbine Transport Ventilator With a Portable Oxygen Concentrator in an Austere Environment". J Spec Oper Med. 16 (3): 30–35. PMID 27734439.
  3. Magill SS, Rhodes B, Klompas M (August 2014). "Improving ventilator-associated event surveillance in the National Healthcare Safety Network and addressing knowledge gaps: update and review". Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 27 (4): 394–400. doi:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000083. PMC 4638221. PMID 24945615.
  4. Mira JP, Brunet F, Belghith M, Soubrane O, Termignon JL, Renaud B, Hamy I, Monchi M, Deslande E, Fierobe L (January 1995). "Reduction of ventilator settings allowed by intravenous oxygenator (IVOX) in ARDS patients". Intensive Care Med. 21 (1): 11–7. PMID 7560467.

Linked-in.jpg