Listeriosis primary prevention
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General recommendations for the primary prevention of infection with Listeria include appropriately washing and handling of food, maintaining a clean and safe kitchen and environment, cooking meat and poultry thoroughly, safely storing foods, and choosing safe foods. In addition to the general recommendations on how to prevent an infection with Listeria, there are additional recommendations specifically for persons who are at higher risk, such as pregnant women, elderly, and individuals with compromised immune systems. There is no vaccine against listeriosis. Pharmacologic prophylactic measures against listeriosis are not helpful.
General Recommendations to Prevent an Infection with Listeria
FDA Recommendations for Washing and Handling Food
- Rinse raw produce, such as fruits and vegetables, thoroughly under running tap water before eating, cutting, or cooking. Even if the produce will be peeled, it should still be washed first.
- Scrub firm produce, such as melons and cucumbers, with a clean produce brush.
- Dry the produce with a clean cloth or paper towel.
- Separate uncooked meats and poultry from vegetables, cooked foods, and ready-to-eat foods.
Keep Your Kitchen and Environment Cleaner and Safer
- Wash hands, knives, countertops, and cutting boards after handling and preparing uncooked foods.
- Be aware that Listeria monocytogenes can grow in foods in the refrigerator. Use an appliance thermometer, such as a refrigerator thermometer, to check the temperature inside your refrigerator. The refrigerator should be 40°F or lower and the freezer 0°F or lower.
- Clean up all spills in your refrigerator right away–especially juices from hot dog and lunch meat packages, raw meat, and raw poultry.
- Clean the inside walls and shelves of your refrigerator with hot water and liquid soap, then rinse.
Cook Meat and Poultry Thoroughly
Thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources, such as beef, pork, or poultry to a safe internal temperature. For a list of recommended temperatures for meat and poultry, visit the safe minimum cooking temperatures chart at FoodSafety.gov.
Store Foods Safely
- Use precooked or ready-to-eat food as soon as you can. Do not store the product in the refrigerator beyond the use-by date; follow USDA refrigerator storage time guidelines:
- Hot Dogs – store opened package no longer than 1 week and unopened package no longer than 2 weeks in the refrigerator.
- Luncheon and Deli Meat – store factory-sealed, unopened package no longer than 2 weeks. Store opened packages and meat sliced at a local deli no longer than 3 to 5 days in the refrigerator.
- Divide leftovers into shallow containers to promote rapid, even cooling. Cover with airtight lids or enclose in plastic wrap or aluminum foil. Use leftovers within 3 to 4 days.
Choose Safer Foods
- Do not drink raw (unpasteurized) milk, and do not eat foods that have unpasteurized milk in them.
Outbreaks in the 1990s were primarily linked to deli meats and hot dogs. Now, Listeria outbreaks are mainly caused by soft Mexican-style cheeses, like queso fresco, and other cheeses that were either made from unpasteurized milk or contaminated during cheese-making. Some outbreaks have also been caused by foods that people may not think of as risky for Listeria, like celery, sprouts, and cantaloupe. Soft cheeses made with unpasteurized milk are estimated to be 50 to 160 times more likely to cause Listeria infection than when they are made with pasteurized milk. Although pasteurization of milk kills Listeria, contamination can occur in milk products made from pasteurized milk if they are produced under unsanitary conditions. Soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk are the riskiest.
Shown below is a table summarizing low and high risk cheese types.
|Higher Risk Cheese Type||Lower Risk Cheese type|
|Soft cheeses made from unpasteurized (raw) milk, such as:
Recommendations for Persons at Higher Risk in Addition to the Recommendations Listed Above
- Do not eat hot dogs, luncheon meats, cold cuts, other deli meats (e.g., bologna), or fermented or dry sausages unless they are heated to an internal temperature of 165°F or until steaming hot just before serving.
- Avoid getting fluid from hot dog and lunch meat packages on other foods, utensils, and food preparation surfaces, and wash hands after handling hot dogs, luncheon meats, and deli meats.
- Pay attention to labels. Do not eat refrigerated pâté or meat spreads from a deli or meat counter or from the refrigerated section of a store. Foods that do not need refrigeration, like canned or shelf-stable pâté and meat spreads, are safe to eat. Refrigerate after opening.
- Do not eat soft cheese such as feta, queso blanco, queso fresco, brie, Camembert, blue-veined, or panela (queso panela) unless it is labeled as made with pasteurized milk. Make sure the label says, MADE WITH PASTEURIZED MILK.
- Be aware that Mexican-style cheeses made from pasteurized milk, such as queso fresco, likely contaminated during cheese-making, have caused Listeria infections.
- Do not eat refrigerated smoked seafood, unless it is contained in a cooked dish, such as a casserole, or unless it is a canned or shelf-stable product.
- Refrigerated smoked seafood, such as salmon, trout, whitefish, cod, tuna, and mackerel, is most often labeled as "nova-style," "lox," "kippered," "smoked," or "jerky."
- These fish are typically found in the refrigerator section or sold at seafood and deli counters of grocery stores and delicatessens.
- Canned and shelf stable tuna, salmon, and other fish products are safe to eat.
Follow This General FDA Advice for Melon Safety
- Consumers and food preparers should wash their hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling any whole melon, such as cantaloupe, watermelon, or honeydew.
- Scrub the surface of melons, such as cantaloupes, with a clean produce brush under running water and dry them with a clean cloth or paper towel before cutting. Be sure that your scrub brush is sanitized after each use, to avoid transferring bacteria between melons.
- Promptly consume cut melon or refrigerate promptly. Keep your cut melon refrigerated at, or less than 40 degrees F (32-34 degrees F is best), for no more than 7 days.
- Discard cut melons left at room temperature for more than 4 hours.