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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Anterior view of the vulva of an adult female with the pubic hair removed

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List of terms related to Labium

Labium (plural labia) is a Latin-derived term meaning "Lip". Labium and its derivatives (including labial, labrum) are used to describe any lip-like structure, but in the English language, labium often specifically refers to parts of the vulva.


The labia majora are lip-like structures comprised mostly of skin and adipose tissue, which extend on either side of the vulva, and after puberty are naturally covered with pubic hair. When standing or with the legs together, they usually entirely or partially cover the other parts of the vulva.

The labia minora (obsolete: nymphae) are two soft folds of skin within the labia majora and to either side of the opening of the vagina. The clitoris is anterior to the vulva where the labia minora meet superiorly. The visible tip of the clitoris, the clitoral glans, is entirely or partially covered by a "hood" of tissue (the clitoral hood).

The coloration, size and general appearance of the labia can vary extensively from woman to woman. [1] In some women the labia minora are almost non-existent, and in others they can be fleshy and protuberant. It is not uncommon for them to be asymmetrical. Some differences are purely personal, while others may be genetically linked; a striking example of the latter being the elongated labia minora of the Khoisan peoples, whose "khoikhoi aprons" can hang down up to four inches past their labia majora when they are standing.[2]

During sexual arousal, the labia become engorged with blood, typically swelling slightly and darkening or reddening in color.

Labiaplasty is a controversial plastic surgery procedure that involves the creation or reshaping of the labia.

Additional images


  1. Femalia. Joani Blank. 978-0940208155
  2. Baker, John R. (1974). "The 'Hottentot Venus'". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2006-06-26.

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