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Immunoglobulin heavy constant mu
Symbols IGHM ; MU; DKFZp686I15196; DKFZp686I15212; FLJ00385; MGC104996; MGC52291; VH
External IDs Template:OMIM5
Template:GNF Ortholog box
Species Human Mouse
Entrez n/a n/a
Ensembl n/a n/a
UniProt n/a n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) n/a n/a
RefSeq (protein) n/a n/a
Location (UCSC) n/a n/a
PubMed search n/a n/a

Immunoglobulin heavy constant mu, also known as IGHM, is a human gene.[1]


  1. "Entrez Gene: IGHM immunoglobulin heavy constant mu".

Further reading

  • Kristensen T, Lopez R, Prydz H (1992). "An estimate of the sequencing error frequency in the DNA sequence databases". DNA Seq. 2 (6): 343–6. PMID 1446073.
  • Frutiger S, Hughes GJ, Paquet N; et al. (1993). "Disulfide bond assignment in human J chain and its covalent pairing with immunoglobulin M.". Biochemistry. 31 (50): 12643–7. PMID 1472500.
  • Neale GA, Kitchingman GR (1991). "mRNA transcripts initiating within the human immunoglobulin mu heavy chain enhancer region contain a non-translatable exon and are extremely heterogeneous at the 5' end". Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (9): 2427–33. PMID 1904154.
  • Friedlander RM, Nussenzweig MC, Leder P (1990). "Complete nucleotide sequence of the membrane form of the human IgM heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (14): 4278. PMID 2115996.
  • Tsubata T, Reth M (1990). "The products of pre-B cell-specific genes (lambda 5 and VpreB) and the immunoglobulin mu chain form a complex that is transported onto the cell surface". J. Exp. Med. 172 (3): 973–6. PMID 2117639.
  • Dorai H, Gillies SD (1989). "The complete nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin genomic C mu gene". Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (15): 6412. PMID 2505237.
  • Pollok BA, Anker R, Eldridge P; et al. (1988). "Molecular basis of the cell-surface expression of immunoglobulin mu chain without light chain in human B lymphocytes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (24): 9199–203. PMID 3122216.
  • Putnam FW, Florent G, Paul C; et al. (1973). "Complete amino acid sequence of the Mu heavy chain of a human IgM immunoglobulin". Science. 182 (109): 287–91. PMID 4742735.
  • Watanabe S, Barnikol HU, Horn J; et al. (1975). "[The primary structure of a monoclonal IgM-immunoglobulin (macroglobulin Gal.), II: the amino acid sequence of the H-chain (mu-type), subgroup H III. Architecture of the complete IgM-molecule (author's transl)]". Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 354 (10–11): 1505–9. PMID 4803843.
  • Mihaesco E, Barnikol-Watanabe S, Barnikol HU; et al. (1981). "The primary structure of the constant part of mu-chain-disease protein BOT". Eur. J. Biochem. 111 (1): 275–86. PMID 6777162.
  • Dolby TW, Devuono J, Croce CM (1981). "Cloning and partial nucleotide sequence of human immunoglobulin mu chain cDNA from B cells and mouse-human hybridomas". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77 (10): 6027–31. PMID 6777778.
  • Rabbitts TH, Forster A, Milstein CP (1982). "Human immunoglobulin heavy chain genes: evolutionary comparisons of C mu, C delta and C gamma genes and associated switch sequences". Nucleic Acids Res. 9 (18): 4509–24. PMID 6795593.
  • Ohnishi K, Takemori T (1994). "Molecular components and assembly of mu.surrogate light chain complexes in pre-B cell lines". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (45): 28347–53. PMID 7961773.
  • Harindranath N, Donadel G, Sigounas G, Notkins AL (1993). "Comparison of complete nucleotide sequence of the human IgM heavy chain constant region of polyreactive and monoreactive antibodies". Mol. Immunol. 30 (1): 111–2. PMID 8417370.
  • Donohoe ME, Blomberg BB (1997). "The 14.1 surrogate light chain promoter has lineage- and stage-restricted activity". J. Immunol. 158 (4): 1681–91. PMID 9029104.
  • Li Q, Santini R, Rosenspire AR (1998). "Glycosylated extracellular domains of membrane immunoglobulin M contribute to its association with mb-1/B29 gene products and the B cell receptor complex". Immunol. Invest. 27 (1–2): 57–72. PMID 9561918.
  • Paterson T, Innes J, McMillan L; et al. (1998). "Variation in IgG1 heavy chain allotype does not contribute to differences in biological activity of two human anti-Rhesus (D) monoclonal antibodies". Immunotechnology. 4 (1): 37–47. PMID 9661813.
  • Fang T, Smith BP, Roman CA (2001). "Conventional and surrogate light chains differentially regulate Ig mu and Dmu heavy chain maturation and surface expression". J. Immunol. 167 (7): 3846–57. PMID 11564802.
  • Taylor BJ, Pittman JA, Seeberger K; et al. (2002). "Intraclonal homogeneity of clonotypic immunoglobulin M and diversity of nonclinical post-switch isotypes in multiple myeloma: insights into the evolution of the myeloma clone". Clin. Cancer Res. 8 (2): 502–13. PMID 11839670.
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH; et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.

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