The term horizontal resistance was first used by J.E. Vanderplank to describe many-gene resistance. This contrasts with the term vertical resistance which was used to describe single-gene resistance. Raoul A. Robinson  further refined the defintion of horizontal resistance. Unlike vertical resistance and parasitic ability, horizontal resistance and horizontal parasitic ability are entirely independent of each other in genetic terms.
- Vanderplank, J.E. (1963) Plant Diseases: Epidemics and Control. Academic Press, New York and London, 349pp.
- Robinson, Raoul A. (1976) Plant Pathosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 184pp.
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