Hirschsprung's disease (patient information)
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Hirschsprung's disease On the Web
Risk calculators and risk factors for Hirschsprung's disease
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Assistant Editor-in-Chief: Meagan E. Doherty
Hirschsprung's disease is a blockage of the large intestine due to improper muscle movement in the bowel. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present from birth.
What are the symptoms of Hirschsprung's disease?
- Failure to pass a first stool within 24-48 hours after birth
- Poor weight gain
- Slow growth (child 0-5 years)
- Swollen belly
- Watery diarrhea (in the newborn)
What are the causes of Hirschsprung's disease?
Muscle contractions in the gut help digested materials move through the intestine. This is called peristalsis. Trigger of the contractions are nerves among the muscle layers .
In Hirschsprung's disease, the nerves are missing from a short or long part of the bowel. Areas without such nerves can not push material through. This causes a blockage. Intestinal contents build up behind the blockage, causing the bowel and abdomen to become swollen. If the condition is severe, the newborn may fail to pass meconium or stool, and the newborn may vomit.
Milder cases may not be diagnosed until later ages. In older children, the disease may cause chronic constipation, abdominal swelling, and decreased growth.
Hirschsprung's disease causes about 25% of all newborn intestinal obstructions. It occurs five times more frequently in males than in females. Hirschsprung's disease is sometimes associated with other inherited or congenital conditions such as Down syndrome.
Who is at risk for Hirschsprung's disease?
Risk Factors include:
- Gender (i.e., higher risk in males than females)
- Congenital condition (e.g., Down Syndrome).
During a physical examination, the doctor may be able to feel loops of bowel in the swollen belly. A rectal examination may reveal a loss of muscle tone in the rectal muscles.
- Tests used to help Hirschsprung's disease diagnosis, may include:
Diseases with similar symptoms
When to seek urgent medical care?
Call your child's health care provider if symptoms of Hirschsprung's disease developed.
Call your child's health care provider if your child has abdominal pain or other new symptoms, after being treated for this condition.
The abnormal section of colon must be surgically removed. Sometimes this can be done in one operation. However, it is frequently done within two steps; first colostomy preformation, and then another procedure later in the first year of life.
Where to find medical care for Hirschsprung's disease?
Directions to Hospitals Treating Hirschsprung's disease
What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?
Symptoms became improved or eliminated in most children after surgical treatment. A better outcome is associated with early treatment and shorter bowel segment involvement.
- Inflammation and infection of the intestines (enterocolitis)
- Perforation of the intestine
- Short bowel syndrome (i.e., a condition that can lead to malnourishment and dehydration)