Hepatitis D historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

The hepatitis D virus was first reported in mid-1977 by an italian researcher, Mario Rizzetto.[1] It was first detected in patients with severe liver disease, from chronic hepatitis B.[2]

Historical Perspective

In 1977, a previously unrecognized nuclear antigen was detected in hepatocytes of patients with chronic hepatitis B, especially in those with severe liver disease.[3] The antigen resembled hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in its subcellular localization. Its presence was always associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but it rarely coexisted with HBcAg.[4][5]

Subsequent experiments in chimpanzees showed that the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) was a structural part of a pathogen that required HBV infection to replicate[6] It was termed "delta antigen".

The entire virus was cloned and sequenced in 1986, and obtained its own genus deltavirus.[7][8]

References

  1. Manuale di Gastroenterologia Unigastro pag. 260
  2. Rizzetto, M (1997). "Immunofluorescence detection of new antigen-antibody system (delta/anti-delta) associated to hepatitis B virus in liver and in serum of HBsAg carriers". Gut. 18 (12): 997–1003. doi:10.1136/gut.18.12.997. PMC 1411847. PMID 75123. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  3. Rizzetto, M (1997). "Immunofluorescence detection of new antigen-antibody system (delta/anti-delta) associated to hepatitis B virus in liver and in serum of HBsAg carriers". Gut. 18 (12): 997–1003. doi:10.1136/gut.18.12.997. PMC 1411847. PMID 75123. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  4. Rizzetto, M; Canese, M G; Arico, S; Crivelli, O; Trepo, C; Bonino, F; Verme, G (1977). "Immunofluorescence detection of new antigen-antibody system (delta/anti-delta) associated to hepatitis B virus in liver and in serum of HBsAg carriers". Gut. 18 (12): 997–1003. doi:10.1136/gut.18.12.997. ISSN 0017-5749.
  5. Ryu WS, Bayer M, Taylor J (1992). "Assembly of hepatitis delta virus particles". J Virol. 66 (4): 2310–5. PMC 289026. PMID 1548764.
  6. Rizzetto, M (1981 Nov-Dec). "Experimental HBV and delta infections of chimpanzees: occurrence and significance of intrahepatic immune complexes of HBcAg and delta antigen". Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 1 (6): 567–74. doi:10.1002/hep.1840010602. PMID 7030907. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. Wang, KS (1986 Oct 9-15). "Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta (delta) viral genome". Nature. 323 (6088): 508–14. doi:10.1038/323508a0. PMID 3762705. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. Fauquet, CM (2005). "Deltavirus". Eight Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London: 735–8. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)

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