Hemolytic anemia resident survival guide
Resident Survival Guide
Synonyms and keywords:: RBC destruction, Hemolysis
Anemia is defined as a decrease in red blood cell count in the body. Hemolytic anemia results from a premature destruction of RBCs. Hemolysis can be due to either extravascular or intravascular destruction of cells. It is caused by a wide variety of reasons, which include inherited diseases like thalassemia, sickle cell disease etc, infections, autoimmune conditions, bone marrow dysfunction, blood transfusions and certain drugs can also result in hemolytic anemia. The most common presenting symptoms are: fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea, tachycardia and icterus in severe cases. Diagnosis usually requires a battery of tests including, but not limited to a peripheral smear, CBC, serum LDH, bone marrow studies, etc. Treatment is directed by the specific cause and can involve bone marrow transplant, splenectomy, transfusions etc.
- ABO incompatibility
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome
- Pre-eclampsia and malignant hypertension
- Membrane cytoskeletal defects like hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis
- Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
- Pyruvate kinase deficiency
- Sickle cell disease
- Cold agglutinin disease
- Drug induced hemolytic anemia
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Prosthetic heart valves
- Infectious causes such as malaria, hepatitis, CMV infection etc.
For a complete list of hemolytic anemia causes click here
The approach to diagnosis of hemolytic anemia is based on a step-wise testing strategy. Below is an algorithm summarizing the identification and laboratory diagnosis of hemolytic anemia.
Examine the patient:
❑ Cold and clammy skin
❑ HEENT signs:
❑ Fever and neurological signs are seen in TTP
❑ Hemoglobinuria in some cases
|No laboratory evidence of hemolysis|
|Degmacytes||Normal cell morphology||Spherocytes||Elliptocytes||Shistocytes||Sickle shaped cells||Hypochromic, microcytic cells|
❑ Family history
❑ Drug history
❑ Recent infections
|Sickle cell disease|
H/o exercise, exertion, trauma or surgery?
❑ Drug induced hemolytic anemia
❑ Autoimmune disease
|❑Exercise induced hemolysis|
❑Prosthetic heart valve
❑Severe aortic stenosis
|Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia|
|Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia||Recent diarrhea||Decreased ADAMTS13 activity|
|Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria||Hereditary spherocytosis|
|HELLP syndrome||Hemolytic uremic syndrome||Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura|
- The treatment of hemolytic anemia depends on the cause of anemia.
- Treatment plan is summarized in the algorithm below based on the 2017 guidelines published by the British Society of Hematology and and the 2020 recommendations by the First International Consensus Group.
Peripheral blood smear findings
Treatment for hereditary spherocytosis
Cold type AIHA
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
- Folic acid supplementation for all patients with hemolytic anemia.
- Erythropoietin decreases the need for transfusions, especially in children and patients with recurrent disease.
- Oral iron supplementation must be given in patients with iron deficiency.
- Corticosteroids whenever used, must be tapered. Most patients need low dose corticosteroid as a long term maintenance therapy.
- Vaccinate against influenza and encapsulated organisms like meningococcus and Streptococcus pneumoniae to prevent OPSI in patients who have undergone splenectomy.
- Long term monitoring of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, LDH, bilirubin level and haptoglobin is needed to track response to therapy and future episodes of hemolysis.
- Transfusions must be avoided when not needed. When absolutely necessary, blood must be typed and matched. If in an emergency situation typing and cross matching is not possible, the least incompatible blood type is used to transfuse.
- Transfusion of blood must be done at a slow rate to prevent destruction of transfused RBCs.
- Treat iron overload with chelation therapy.
- Discontinue trigger medications such as penicillin or sulfa drugs.
- Do not transfuse blood in TTP/HUS as it increases risk of thrombosis.
- Corticosteroids must not be stopped abruptly. A tapered approach must be followed.
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