Hematuria epidemiology and demographics

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Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Venkata Sivakrishna Kumar Pulivarthi M.B.B.S [1]


Asymptomatic hematuria is common in clinical practice, with a prevalence ranging from 0.18% to 38.7%.[1] Transient microscopic hematuria may occur in 6% to 39% of the population studied, but persistent microscopic hematuria in 3 or more consecutive urinalyses occurs less often, and is seen in 0.5% to 2% of the population under study. In the prevalence of underlying urinary tract disease, there is no clear difference between patients with transient microscopic hematuria and those with persistent microscopic hematuria.[2]

Epidemiology and Demographics


Microscopic hematuria is quite common, with a prevalence of approximately 6.5% of adults, varying according to the characteristics of the population.[3] The prevalence of microscopic hematuria ranges from 1-20% depending on the population studied and also varies with on age, gender, frequency of testing, threshold used to define MH and presence of risk factors such as smoking.[3]


Young patients are more likely to have intrinsic renal pathology (i.e. glomerulonephritis whereas malignancy is more common in the elderly).[4]


Malignancy of the bladder and kidney is at least twice as common in males than in females. Women are more commonly affected by urinary tract infections.


  1. Loo RK, Lieberman SF, Slezak JM, Landa HM, Mariani AJ, Nicolaisen G et al. (2013) Stratifying risk of urinary tract malignant tumors in patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Mayo Clin Proc 88 (2):129-38. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.10.004 PMID: 23312369
  2. Rew, Karl (2010). Primary care urology. Philadelphia, Pa. London: Saunders. ISBN 978-1437724899.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Davis R, Jones JS, Barocas DA, Castle EP, Lang EK, Leveillee RJ et al. (2012) Diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria (AMH) in adults: AUA guideline. J Urol 188 (6 Suppl):2473-81. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.078 PMID: 23098784
  4. Rew, Karl (2010). Primary care urology. Philadelphia, Pa. London: Saunders. ISBN 978-1437724899.