Haplogroup M (mtDNA)
The two haplogroups M and N are believed to represent the initial migration of modern humans out of Africa. Haplogroup M in particular represents the dispersal of modern humans into the Middle East and South Asia some 60 to 80,000 years ago along the southern Asian coastline.
Owing to its great age, haplogroup M is one of those mtDNA lineages which does not correspond well to present-day racial groups, as it spans Siberian, East Asian, Southeast Asian, Central Asian, South Asian, Melanesian as well as Ethiopian, Caucasian, and various Middle Eastern groups in lesser frequency.
- Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
- Human mitochondrial genetics
- Genetics and Archaeogenetics of South Asia
- Spread of Haplogroup M, from National Geographic
- Tree of M haplogroup as for 2006
- The India Genealogical DNA Project
- Another tree emphasizing the Andamanese and Nicobarese populations in comparison with other peoples with high M presence
- K.Tharanghaj et al. In situ origin of deep rooting lineages of mitochondrial Macrohaplogroup M in India (PDF document)