Group A streptococcal infection

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Group A streptococcal infection Microchapters

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Overview

Classification

Impetigo
Strep throat
Rheumatic heart disease
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Sinusitis
Scarlet fever
Tonsilitis
Otitis
Osteomyelitis
Meningitis
Brain abscess
Endometritis
Cellulitis
Erysipelas
Toxic Shock Syndrome

Pathophysiology

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Group A streptcocci or streptoccus pyogenes causes a wide range of diseases in many organs in the body. It is important to classify the infections caused by the bacteria in order to understand every disease separately. Classification of the group A streptococcal infections will be based on the pathogenesis of the infection and the organ infected. According to the pathogenesis of the infection, they can be classified into pyogenic, toxogenic or immunogenic infections. Based on the location, the streptococcus pyogenes affects the lungs, ear, nose, throat, blood, female genital system and the central nervous system.

The pathophysiology of the disease depends on various virulence factors. These factors include protein M, streptolysins O and S, hyalourinidase and C5a peptidase.

Classification

Group A streptococcal infections can be classified according to the pathogenesis of the infection and the organ infected. According to the pathogenesis of the infection, they can be classified into pyogenic, toxogenic or immunogenic infections. Based on the location, the streptococcus pyogenes affects the lungs, ear, nose, throat, blood, female genital system and the central nervous system.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Group A streptococcal infections
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pathogenesis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Organ based
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pyogenic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Toxogenic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Immunogenic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lungs
 
 
 
 
 
Ear, nose and throat
 
 
 
 
 
Bone
 
 
Blood
 
 
 
Female genital system
 
 
 
 
 
Brain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pneumonia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Osteomyelitis
 
 
Bacteremia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pharyngitis (Strep throat)
 
Cellulitis
 
Impetigo
 
Erysipelas
 
 
 
Scarlet fever
 
Toxic shock like syndrome
 
Necrotizing fasciitis
 
Rheumatic fever
 
Glomerulonephritis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sinusitis
 
Tonsilitis
 
Otitis media
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Postpartum endometritis
 
Vaginitis
 
Meningitis
 
Brain abscess

Pathophysiology

Transmission

Group A streptococcal infection can be transmitted by the following:[1]

  • Direct inoculation transmission
  • Infected airborne droplets

Virulence factors

Group A streptococcus are responsible for various diseases ranging from mild to life threatening cases. The bacteria depends mainly on many virulence factors which are responsible for the pathogenesis of the infections.[1]

Virulence factors Mechanism of action
M protein
Streptolysin O and S
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A and C
Streptokinase
Hyalourinidase
Streptodornase
C5a peptidase
  • C5a peptidase cleaves a potent neutrophil chemotaxin called C5a, which is produced by the complement system.[4] C5a peptidase is necessary to minimize the influx of neutrophils early in infection as the bacteria are attempting to colonize the host's tissue.[5].
Streptococcal chemokine protease
  • The affected tissue of patients with severe cases of necrotizing fasciitis are devoid of neutrophils.[6]. The serine protease ScpC, which is released by S. pyogenes, is responsible for preventing the migration of neutrophils to the spreading infection.[7] ScpC degrades the chemokine IL-8, which would otherwise attract neutrophils to the site of infection. C5a peptidase, although required to degrade the neutrophil chemotaxin C5a in the early stages of infection, is not required for S. pyogenes to prevent the influx of neutrophils as the bacteria spread through the fascia.[5][7]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Brouwer S, Barnett TC, Rivera-Hernandez T, Rohde M, Walker MJ (2016). "Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and colonization". FEBS Lett. 590 (21): 3739–3757. doi:10.1002/1873-3468.12254. PMID 27312939.
  2. Starr C, Engleberg N (2006). "Role of hyaluronidase in subcutaneous spread and growth of group A streptococcus". Infect Immun. 74 (1): 40–8. PMID 16368955.
  3. Buchanan J, Simpson A, Aziz R, Liu G, Kristian S, Kotb M, Feramisco J, Nizet V (2006). "DNase expression allows the pathogen group A Streptococcus to escape killing in neutrophil extracellular traps". Curr Biol. 16 (4): 396–400. PMID 16488874.
  4. Wexler D, Chenoweth D, Cleary P (1985). "Mechanism of action of the group A streptococcal C5a inactivator". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 82 (23): 8144–8. PMID 3906656.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ji Y, McLandsborough L, Kondagunta A, Cleary P (1996). "C5a peptidase alters clearance and trafficking of group A streptococci by infected mice". Infect Immun. 64 (2): 503–10. PMID 8550199.
  6. Hidalgo-Grass C, Dan-Goor M, Maly A, Eran Y, Kwinn L, Nizet V, Ravins M, Jaffe J, Peyser A, Moses A, Hanski E (2004). "Effect of a bacterial pheromone peptide on host chemokine degradation in group A streptococcal necrotising soft-tissue infections". Lancet. 363 (9410): 696–703. PMID 15001327.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Hidalgo-Grass C, Mishalian I, Dan-Goor M, Belotserkovsky I, Eran Y, Nizet V, Peled A, Hanski E (2006). "A streptococcal protease that degrades CXC chemokines and impairs bacterial clearance from infected tissues". EMBO J. 25 (19): 4628–37. PMID 16977314.

References


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