Germinoma history and symptoms

Jump to: navigation, search

Germinoma Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Differentiating Germinoma from other Diseases

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Staging

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Chest X Ray

CT

MRI

Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Germinoma history and symptoms On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Germinoma history and symptoms

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA onGerminoma history and symptoms

CDC on Germinoma history and symptoms

Germinoma history and symptoms in the news

on Germinoma history and symptoms

Directions to Hospitals Treating Germinoma

Risk calculators and risk factors for Germinoma history and symptoms

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Simrat Sarai, M.D. [2]

Overview

Symptoms of germinoma include headache, vomiting, papilledema, lethargy, somnolence, ataxia, behavioral changes, decline in academic performance, paralysis of upward gaze, paralysis of convergence, diabetes insipidus, delayed pubertal development, precocious puberty, isolated growth hormone deficiency, hypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency), decreased visual acuity from chiasmal or optic nerve compression, and visual field deficit (e.g, bitemporal hemianopsia). Presenting symptoms of patients with intracranial GCTs depend upon the location, size of the tumor, and the patient's age.[1][2][3]

History and Symptoms

  • Presenting symptoms of patients with intracranial GCTs depend upon the location, size of the tumor, and the patient's age.
  • In majority of patients with unrecognized CNS GCTs may have had a long history of symptoms such as enuresis, movement disorders, anorexia, and psychiatric complaints. In such cases diagnosis has been delayed from 7 months to 3 years.
  • The anatomic relationship between the pineal gland and the quadrigeminal plate, deep venous structures and third ventricle accounts for most of the symptoms associated with pineal region tumors.[4]
  • Nonspecific symptoms such as anorexia, enuresis, and psychiatric complaints can lead to delays in diagnosis, however signs of increased intracranial pressure or visual changes tend to result in earlier diagnosis.[3]

The symptoms of CNS germ cell tumors by age are shown below in a tabular form:[5]

Age of the patient Symptoms of CNS GCT
Prenatal/neonate
Young infants
  • The teratoma and choriocarcinoma subtypes of non germinoma germ cell tumor are most common in young infants; these patients may present with the following:
    • Irritability
    • Listlessness
    • Failure to thrive
    • Macrocephaly
    • Bulging fontanelle
Beyond infancy
  • Presentation depends on tumor location

Symptoms of pineal and suprasellar germ cell tumors are shown below in a tabular form:[1][2][3]

TYpe of the tumor Symptoms
Pineal tumors
  • Pineal tumors typically cause obstructive hydrocephalus
  • Germ cell tumors in the pineal region, independent of histological subtype, most commonly present with hydrocephalus, Parinaud syndrome (vertical gaze impairment, convergence nystagmus, and light-near pupillary response dissociation) obtundation, pyramidal tract signs, and ataxia.
  • Patients with germinomas may present with hydrocephalus and obtundation or Parinaud's Syndrome.
  • At the time of diagnosis, patients with nongerminomatous germ cell tumors tend to have larger tumors and more severe neurologic compromise, including a higher incidence of hydrocephalus and visual dysfunction.[6]
  • In approximately 25 to 50 percent of cases symptoms of increased intracranial pressure are present, which include the following:
  • Other symptoms associated with pineal germ cell tumors (GCTs) and obstructive hydrocephalus include the following:
    • Ataxia
    • Behavioral changes
    • Decline in academic performance
  • Neuro Ophthalmologic abnormalities are present in approximately 50 percent of cases. Parinaud syndrome (vertical gaze impairment, convergence nystagmus, and light-near pupillary response dissociation)
    • Paralysis of upward gaze
    • Paralysis of convergence
  • Endocrinopathies are rarely associated with pineal tumors, although diabetes insipidus is sometimes observed which may indicate occult tumor involvement of the floor of the fourth ventricle and the suprasellar area
Suprasellar tumors
Multifocal or bifocal tumors[7]
  • Patients with multifocal or bifocal tumors may present with both suprasellar and pineal region syndromes.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Sethi RV, Marino R, Niemierko A, Tarbell NJ, Yock TI, MacDonald SM (2013). "Delayed diagnosis in children with intracranial germ cell tumors". J Pediatr. 163 (5): 1448–53. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.06.024. PMID 23896184.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Packer RJ, Cohen BH, Cooney K, Coney K (2000). "Intracranial germ cell tumors". Oncologist. 5 (4): 312–20. PMID 10964999.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Crawford JR, Santi MR, Vezina G, Myseros JS, Keating RF, LaFond DA; et al. (2007). "CNS germ cell tumor (CNSGCT) of childhood: presentation and delayed diagnosis". Neurology. 68 (20): 1668–73. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000261908.36803.ac. PMID 17502547.
  4. Packer, Roger J., Bruce H. Cohen, and Kathleen Cooney. "Intracranial germ cell tumors." The Oncologist 5.4 (2000): 312-320.
  5. Goodwin TL, Sainani K, Fisher PG (2009). "Incidence patterns of central nervous system germ cell tumors: a SEER Study". J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 31 (8): 541–4. doi:10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181983af5. PMID 19636276.
  6. Packer, Roger J., Bruce H. Cohen, and Kathleen Cooney. "Intracranial germ cell tumors." The Oncologist 5.4 (2000): 312-320.
  7. Hoffman HJ, Otsubo H, Hendrick EB, Humphreys RP, Drake JM, Becker LE; et al. (1991). "Intracranial germ-cell tumors in children". J Neurosurg. 74 (4): 545–51. doi:10.3171/jns.1991.74.4.0545. PMID 1848284.

Linked-in.jpg