Gastrointestinal varices causes

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Gastrointestinal varices Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Gastrointestinal varices from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan


Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Guidelines for Management

Case Studies

Case #1

Gastrointestinal varices causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Gastrointestinal varices causes

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Gastrointestinal varices causes

CDC on Gastrointestinal varices causes

Gastrointestinal varices causes in the news

Blogs on Gastrointestinal varices causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Psoriasis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Gastrointestinal varices causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]


Causes of gastointestinal varices include all the causes of increased portal venous pressure, which may be divided into cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic causes.


Cirrhotic causes

Non-cirrhotic causes

Pre-hepatic causes

Intrahepatic causes[1][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][17][18][19][20]



  1. 1.0 1.1 Li X, Gao W, Chen J, Tang W (2000). "[Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension associated with autoimmune disease]". Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi (in Chinese). 38 (2): 101–3. PMID 11831999.
  2. Kono K, Ohnishi K, Omata M, Saito M, Nakayama T, Hatano H, Nakajima Y, Sugita S, Okuda K (1988). "Experimental portal fibrosis produced by intraportal injection of killed nonpathogenic Escherichia coli in rabbits". Gastroenterology. 94 (3): 787–96. PMID 3276575.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kumar S, Joshi R, Jain AP (2007). "Portal hypertension associated with sickle cell disease". Indian J Gastroenterol. 26 (2): 94. PMID 17558079.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Bayan K, Tüzün Y, Yilmaz S, Canoruc N, Dursun M (2009). "Analysis of inherited thrombophilic mutations and natural anticoagulant deficiency in patients with idiopathic portal hypertension". J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 28 (1): 57–62. doi:10.1007/s11239-008-0244-8. PMID 18685811.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Girard M, Amiel J, Fabre M, Pariente D, Lyonnet S, Jacquemin E (2005). "Adams-Oliver syndrome and hepatoportal sclerosis: occasional association or common mechanism?". Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 135 (2): 186–9. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.30724. PMID 15832360.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Maida I, Garcia-Gasco P, Sotgiu G, Rios MJ, Vispo ME, Martin-Carbonero L, Barreiro P, Mura MS, Babudieri S, Albertos S, Garcia-Samaniego J, Soriano V (2008). "Antiretroviral-associated portal hypertension: a new clinical condition? Prevalence, predictors and outcome". Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 13 (1): 103–7. PMID 18389904.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Nevens F, Fevery J, Van Steenbergen W, Sciot R, Desmet V, De Groote J (1990). "Arsenic and non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. A report of eight cases". J. Hepatol. 11 (1): 80–5. PMID 2398270.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Fuss IJ, Friend J, Yang Z, He JP, Hooda L, Boyer J, Xi L, Raffeld M, Kleiner DE, Heller T, Strober W (2013). "Nodular regenerative hyperplasia in common variable immunodeficiency". J. Clin. Immunol. 33 (4): 748–58. doi:10.1007/s10875-013-9873-6. PMC 3731765. PMID 23420139.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Vaiphei K, Bhatia A, Sinha SK (2011). "Liver pathology in collagen vascular disorders highlighting the vascular changes within portal tracts". Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 54 (1): 25–31. doi:10.4103/0377-4929.77319. PMID 21393872.
  10. 10.0 10.1 De Boer NK, Tuynman H, Bloemena E, Westerga J, Van Der Peet DL, Mulder CJ, Cuesta MA, Meuwissen SG, Van Nieuwkerk CM, Van Bodegraven AA (2008). "Histopathology of liver biopsies from a thiopurine-naïve inflammatory bowel disease cohort: prevalence of nodular regenerative hyperplasia". Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 43 (5): 604–8. doi:10.1080/00365520701800266. PMID 18415755.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sarin SK, Mehra NK, Agarwal A, Malhotra V, Anand BS, Taneja V (1987). "Familial aggregation in noncirrhotic portal fibrosis: a report of four families". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 82 (11): 1130–3. PMID 3499813.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Imai Y, Minami Y, Miyoshi S, Kawata S, Saito R, Noda S, Tamura S, Nishikawa M, Tajima K, Tarui S (1986). "Idiopathic portal hypertension associated with Hashimoto's disease: report of three cases". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 81 (9): 791–5. PMID 2944377.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Siramolpiwat S, Seijo S, Miquel R, Berzigotti A, Garcia-Criado A, Darnell A, Turon F, Hernandez-Gea V, Bosch J, Garcia-Pagán JC (2014). "Idiopathic portal hypertension: natural history and long-term outcome". Hepatology. 59 (6): 2276–85. doi:10.1002/hep.26904. PMID 24155091.
  14. 14.0 14.1 de Lonlay P, Seta N (2009). "The clinical spectrum of phosphomannose isomerase deficiency, with an evaluation of mannose treatment for CDG-Ib". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1792 (9): 841–3. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2008.11.012. PMID 19101627.
  15. Allison MC, Mowat A, McCruden EA, McGregor E, Burt AD, Briggs JD, Junor BJ, Follett EA, MacSween RN, Mills PR (1992). "The spectrum of chronic liver disease in renal transplant recipients". Q. J. Med. 83 (301): 355–67. PMID 1438671.
  16. Gane E, Portmann B, Saxena R, Wong P, Ramage J, Williams R (1994). "Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver graft after liver transplantation". Hepatology. 20 (1 Pt 1): 88–94. PMID 8020909.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Vernier-Massouille G, Cosnes J, Lemann M, Marteau P, Reinisch W, Laharie D, Cadiot G, Bouhnik Y, De Vos M, Boureille A, Duclos B, Seksik P, Mary JY, Colombel JF (2007). "Nodular regenerative hyperplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine". Gut. 56 (10): 1404–9. doi:10.1136/gut.2006.114363. PMC 2000290. PMID 17504943.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Calabrese E, Hanauer SB (2011). "Assessment of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension associated with thiopurine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease". J Crohns Colitis. 5 (1): 48–53. doi:10.1016/j.crohns.2010.08.007. PMID 21272804.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Roulot D (2013). "Liver involvement in Turner syndrome". Liver Int. 33 (1): 24–30. doi:10.1111/liv.12007. PMID 23121401.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Geubel AP, De Galocsy C, Alves N, Rahier J, Dive C (1991). "Liver damage caused by therapeutic vitamin A administration: estimate of dose-related toxicity in 41 cases". Gastroenterology. 100 (6): 1701–9. PMID 2019375.

Template:WH Template:WS