Epidemic

Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for Epidemic

Articles

Most recent articles on Epidemic

Most cited articles on Epidemic

Review articles on Epidemic

Articles on Epidemic in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Epidemic

Images of Epidemic

Photos of Epidemic

Podcasts & MP3s on Epidemic

Videos on Epidemic

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Epidemic

Bandolier on Epidemic

TRIP on Epidemic

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Epidemic at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Epidemic

Clinical Trials on Epidemic at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Epidemic

NICE Guidance on Epidemic

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Epidemic

CDC on Epidemic

Books

Books on Epidemic

News

Epidemic in the news

Be alerted to news on Epidemic

News trends on Epidemic

Commentary

Blogs on Epidemic

Definitions

Definitions of Epidemic

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Epidemic

Discussion groups on Epidemic

Patient Handouts on Epidemic

Directions to Hospitals Treating Epidemic

Risk calculators and risk factors for Epidemic

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Epidemic

Causes & Risk Factors for Epidemic

Diagnostic studies for Epidemic

Treatment of Epidemic

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Epidemic

International

Epidemic en Espanol

Epidemic en Francais

Business

Epidemic in the Marketplace

Patents on Epidemic

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Epidemic

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a classification of a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is "expected," based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a specified period of time is called the "incidence rate"). (An epizootic is the same thing but for an animal population.)

Classification

Defining an epidemic can be subjective, depending in part on what is "expected". An epidemic may be restricted to one locale (an outbreak), more general (an "epidemic") or even global (pandemic). Because it is based on what is "expected" or thought normal, a few cases of a very rare disease like rabies may be classified as an "epidemic," while many cases of a common disease (like the common cold) would not.

Endemic diseases

Common diseases that occur at a constant but relatively high rate in the population are said to be "endemic." An example of an endemic disease is malaria in some parts of Africa (for example, Liberia) in which a large portion of the population is expected to get malaria at some point in their lifetimes.

Non-infectious disease usage

The term "epidemic" is often used in a sense to refer to widespread and growing societal problems, for example, in discussions of obesity, mental illness or drug addiction.

Famous examples of epidemics include the bubonic plague epidemic of Medieval Europe= known as the Black Death, and the Great Influenza Pandemic which coincided with the end of World War I.

Factors stimulating new epidemics

Factors that have been described by Mark Woolhouse and Sonya Gowtage-Sequeria to stimulate the rise of new epidemics [1] include:

  1. Alterations in agricultural practices and land use
  2. Changes in society and human demographics
  3. Poor population health (e.g. malnutrition, HIV, ...)
  4. Hospitals and medical procedures
  5. Evolution of the pathogen (e.g. increased virulence, antimicrobial drug resistance,)
  6. Contamination of water supplies and food sources
  7. International travel
  8. Failure of public health programs
  9. International trade
  10. Climate change

In addition, several other factors have also been mentioned in different reports, such as the report by professor Andy Dobson [2] and the report by professor Akilesh Mishra [3].These include :

  1. Reduced levels of biodiversity (e.g. trough environmental destruction)
  2. Bad urban planning

Pre-emptive measures

To protect us against the emergence of new epidemics, several preemptive measures have been proposed by professor Nina Marano [4], and Andy Dobson. These include:

  • To eat less food containing animal protein (eg meat, milk, milk-derivates)
  • To eat local food
  • To eat crops according to the season
  • To make agriculture more efficient
  • To avoid destruction of the rainforest
  • To be prepared to pay a higher price for meat

In addition, certain other measures are known to reduce the beneficial factors found above. As such, the measures would also decrease the possible emergence of new epidemics. These measures are:

Renewed concern

In August 2007, the World Health Organization reported an unprecedented rate of propagation of infectious diseases.[5]

References

See also

External links

</br> af:Epidemie bs:Epidemija ca:Epidèmia cs:Epidemie da:Epidemi de:Epidemieeo:Epidemio eu:Izurrigl:Epidemia id:Wabah it:Epidemia lt:Epidemija nl:Epidemieno:Epidemi nn:Epidemiqu:Unquy mast'akuysq:Epidemia scn:Pidimìa simple:Epidemic sk:Epidémia sl:Epidemija sr:Епидемија fi:Epidemia sv:Epidemi


Linked-in.jpg