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Cultivated Flammulina velutipes
Cultivated Flammulina velutipes
Wild Enokitake, Flammulina velutipes
Wild Enokitake, Flammulina velutipes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Homobasidiomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Marasmiaceae
Genus: Flammulina

Flammulina callistosporioides
Flammulina elastica
Flammulina fennae
Flammulina ferrugineolutea
Flammulina mediterranea
Flammulina mexicana
Flammulina ononidis
Flammulina populicola
Flammulina rossica
Flammulina similis
Flammulina stratosa
Flammulina velutipes

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Flammulina velutipes
mycological characteristics:
Gills icon.png 
gills on hymenium
Convex cap icon.svg 

cap is convex

hymenium is adnexed

stipe is bare

White spore print icon.png 

spore print is white

ecology is saprophytic

edibility: choice

Enokitake (Japanese: えのき茸, Chinese: , Pinyin: jīnzhēngū; Korean: 팽이버섯 Revised Romanization: pengi beoseot) are long, thin white mushrooms used in Asian cuisines, particularly those of Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam. These mushrooms are cultivars of Flammulina velutipes also called golden needle mushroom. Wild forms differing in color, texture, and sliminess are called winter mushrooms, velvet foot, or velvet stem among other names.

The mushroom is available fresh or canned, the fresh mushroom being preferred by many. They are traditionally used for soups, but can also be used for salads and other dishes. They have a fruity flavor and a crisp texture. The mushroom can be refrigerated for about one week.

The mushroom naturally grows on the stumps of the Chinese Hackberry tree, called enoki in Japanese, but also on some other trees as for example mulberry and persimmon trees. There is a significant difference in appearance between the wild and the cultivated mushrooms. Cultivated mushrooms are not exposed to light resulting in a white color, whereas wild mushrooms usually have a dark brown color. The cultivated mushrooms are grown in a high CO2 environment to produce long thin stems, whereas wild mushrooms produce a much shorter and thicker stem.

The variety available in the supermarket is always cultivated. The mushroom is cultivated in a plastic bottle or a vinyl bag for 30 days at 15°C and 70% humidity, on a substrate of saw dust or corn cobs, and a number of additional ingredients. Afterwards, the mushroom is grown for another 30 days in a slightly cooler but more humid environment. The growth is constricted in a paper cone to force the mushroom to grow long and thin. The mushroom available in the supermarket often still shows the impression of the bottle around the base of the mushroom.

The mushroom is very easy to cultivate, and has been cultivated in Japan for over 300 years, initially on wood, and later in the bottles as described above. Home cultivation kits are also available.

In North America, a second species, Flammulina populicola has been cultivated and may be available in kits.


See also

bg:Зимна припънка cs:Penízovka sametonohá de:Samtfußrübling ko:팽이버섯 id:Enokitake it:Flammulina velutipes ka:ზამთრის სოკო lt:Ugniabudė nl:Fluweelpootje uk:Гриб зимовий