Echocardiography in congenital heart disease

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Edited by: Bradley Crotty, M.D. [1]


Congenital heart disease occurs in approximately 6 /1000 live births, and has advanced tremendously from the early descriptions and operations of the 1930s-1950s. Advances in diagnosis and treatment, including detection and in utero therapy, continue to push this field, making it more complex and specialized. An increasing number of patients are entering adulthood, and leaving the realm of the pediatric cardiologist. In academic medical centers, subspecialization of cardiologists into adult congenital disease is the norm.

Echocardiography is a tool that is used in both diagnosis as well as crucial follow-up for these congenital problems. Patients who are required surgery in the past, as well as patients with mild congenital malformations. Not yet surgically corrected require vigilant follow-up from their cardiologist. Long-term follow-up data from the most recent surgical procedures is still being accumulated, and the natural history of disease is still being modified accordingly.

Transthoracic echocardiography is a very useful tool for the follow-up and surveillance of these patients. It allows for a noninvasive and radiation free imaging of heart valves, cardiac chambers, and estimations of pulmonary artery pressures. Many lesions require echocardiographic vigilance to ensure stability of repair. These can include changes in artificial valves, or patch repair of septal defects, as patients grow.

Echocardiography findings by lesions will be discussed in this section, a company by echocardiography loops. A brief discussion of postoperative changes by leash and will also be discussed.

Lesions by category

Heart Valves

Congenital bicuspid valve

Congenital bicuspid valves are found in approximately 1-2% of adults. {{#ev:youtube|8B5BWhPgbjk}}

Aortic Stenosis

Pulmonic Stenosis

Septal Defects and Shunts

ASD - primum

ASD - secundum



Patent Ductus Arteriosis

Aortic Arch Defects


Interrupted Aortic Arch

Marfan's Syndrome

Complex Lesions

Tetrology of Fallot

Transposition of Great Vessels

Ebstein's Abnormality

Double - outlet RV

Atioventricular canal defects

Hypoplastic Left Heart

>> ==== Modified Fontan ====

Other Lesions

total anomolous pulmonary vein connection

--Bcrotty 17:19, 24 September 2007 (MST)

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