Jump to navigation Jump to search
ICD-10 R49
ICD-9 784.49

WikiDoc Resources for Dysphonia


Most recent articles on Dysphonia

Most cited articles on Dysphonia

Review articles on Dysphonia

Articles on Dysphonia in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Dysphonia

Images of Dysphonia

Photos of Dysphonia

Podcasts & MP3s on Dysphonia

Videos on Dysphonia

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Dysphonia

Bandolier on Dysphonia

TRIP on Dysphonia

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Dysphonia at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Dysphonia

Clinical Trials on Dysphonia at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Dysphonia

NICE Guidance on Dysphonia


FDA on Dysphonia

CDC on Dysphonia


Books on Dysphonia


Dysphonia in the news

Be alerted to news on Dysphonia

News trends on Dysphonia


Blogs on Dysphonia


Definitions of Dysphonia

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Dysphonia

Discussion groups on Dysphonia

Patient Handouts on Dysphonia

Directions to Hospitals Treating Dysphonia

Risk calculators and risk factors for Dysphonia

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Dysphonia

Causes & Risk Factors for Dysphonia

Diagnostic studies for Dysphonia

Treatment of Dysphonia

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Dysphonia


Dysphonia en Espanol

Dysphonia en Francais


Dysphonia in the Marketplace

Patents on Dysphonia

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Dysphonia

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Synonyms and keywords: hoarseness


Dysphonia is the medical term for hoarseness or other phonation disorders. It is considered much less severe than aphonia. Hoarseness can be a change in pitch, a rough sound of the voice, or an increased effort in speaking.

Classificaiton of Dysphonia

Based Upon Chronicity

  • Acute hoarseness has a sudden onset and lasts fewer than 2 weeks
  • Chronic hoarseness lasts longer than 2 weeks

Based Upon Pathophysiology


Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Aortic aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Left atrial enlargement, Wegener's Granulotomosis
Chemical / poisoning Smoke irritation, Chronic inhalation of chemical irritant agents (professional activity)
Dermatologic Lipoid proteinosis
Drug Side Effect Axitinib, Botulinum toxin, Danazol, Dornase alfa, Gestrinone, Ixabepilone, Loratadine, Naltrexone, Oxcarbazepine, Pramipexole, Tobramycin
Ear Nose Throat Elongated styloid process
Endocrine Goitre, Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, Hypothyroidism, Parathyroid carcinoma, Riedel thyroiditis, Thyroid carcinoma, Thyroid tumor, Virilization
Environmental Chronic inhalation of chemical irritant agents (professional activity)
Gastroenterologic Esophageal tumor, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), Oral submucous fibrosis, Oropharyngeal cancer
Genetic Diastrophic dwarfism, Distal myopathy 2, Lipoid proteinosis, Muscular dystrophy
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Postsurgical
Infectious Disease Acute viral laryngitis, ,Bacterial tracheitis / laryngitis Chronic sinusitis, Croup, Deep space face and neck infection, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, Laryngotracheobronchitis, Paracoccidioidomycosis, Quinsy, Sinusitis, Tracheolaryngobronchitis, Upper Respiratory Infection , Laryngeal papillomatosis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, Muscular dystrophy, Polymyositis, Diastrophic dwarfism, Distal myopathy 2, Myasthenia gravis, Juvenile dermatomyositis, Rheumatoid arthritis
Neurologic 10th cranial nerve disorder, 12th cranial nerve disorder, Acoustic neuroma, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Bulbar palsy, Cerebral palsy, Cerebrovascular accident, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Laryngeal nerve palsy, Motor neuron disease, Multiple sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis, Neural tumor, Parkinson's disease, Posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome, Spasmodic dysphonia, Lipoid proteinosis, Neurofibroma, Vocal cord paralysis
Nutritional / Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic Menopause
Oncologic Bronchial carcinoma, Bronchogenic tumor, Chondromas, Glomus jugulare tumor, Neurofibroma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Thyroid carcinoma, Thyroid tumor, Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, Parathyroid carcinoma, Esophageal tumor, Acoustic neuroma, Neural tumor, Laryngeal carcinoma, Lung cancer, Oropharyngeal cancer, Hemangioma
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Axitinib, Danazol, Dornase alfa, Gestrinone
Psychiatric Habitual aphonia, Psychogenic aphonia, Spasmodic dysphonia
Pulmonary Chorditis, Edema of vocal cords, Foreign body in respiratory tract, Hemangioma, Hemorrhage into vocal folds, Laryngeal carcinoma, Laryngeal granuloma, Laryngeal papillomatosis, Laryngocelesventricular prolapse, Laryngomalacia, Lipoma, Lung cancer, Nasal polyps, Oropharyngeal cancer, Papillomas, Reinke's edema, Retention cysts, Spasmodic dysphonia, Ventricular dysphonias, Vocal cord nodules, Vocal cord paralysis, Vocal cord polyps, Vocal fold cyst, Acute viral laryngitis, Bacterial tracheitis / laryngitis, Chronic sinusitis, Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, Laryngotracheobronchitis, Sinusitis, Tracheolaryngobronchitis, Upper Respiratory Infection , Bronchial carcinoma, Bronchogenic tumor, Squamous cell carcinoma, Allergic rhinitis, Chronic cough, severe cold, Sarcoidosis, Singer nodes
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Allergic rhinitis, Anaphylaxis, Juvenile dermatomyositis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatoid disease, Riedel thyroiditis, Polymyositis, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Multiple sclerosis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sarcoidosis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Head injury, Trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Aging, Amyloidosis, Chronic cough, severe cold, Excessively dry and warm room coupled with low water intake, Overstress of vocal cords (speaking, shouting, singing, crying), Puberty, Sarcoidosis, Singer nodes, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Virilization, Smoke irritation, Menopause, Foreign body in respiratory tract

Causes in Alphabetical Order

In alphabetical order. [1] [2]




History and Symptoms

The following should be characterized as part of a full history:

  • Onset
  • Duration
  • Prior history
  • Exposure
  • Medications
  • Voice use
  • Associated symptoms
  • Medical history
  • Surgical history
  • Trauma

Physical Examination

  • Focus on neck, head, lung, thyroid and cardiac exams
  • Evaluate voice quality

Laboratory Findings


MRI and CT

Other Diagnostic Studies

  • Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy
  • Direct or fiber optic nasolaryngoscopy
  • Biopsy


  • Airway, breathing and circulation
  • Voice rest
  • Diet modification (GERD)
  • Stop smoking
  • Wear protective clothing or masks (if hoarseness is due to exposure)
  • Treat underlying etiologies
  • Voice therapy


Acute Pharmacotherapies

Surgery and Device Based Therapy

  • Surgical intervention for abscesses, masses
  • Cricothyrotomy or tracheostomy (to establish airway)


  1. Sailer, Christian, Wasner, Susanne. Differential Diagnosis Pocket. Hermosa Beach, CA: Borm Bruckmeir Publishing LLC, 2002:77 ISBN 1591032016
  2. Kahan, Scott, Smith, Ellen G. In A Page: Signs and Symptoms. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2004:68 ISBN 140510368X

Template:Speech and voice symptoms and signs

Template:WikiDoc Sources