Dyslexia pathophysiology

Jump to: navigation, search

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Please help WikiDoc by adding more content here. It's easy! Click here to learn about editing.

Dyslexia Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Dyslexia from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

CT

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Dyslexia pathophysiology On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Dyslexia pathophysiology

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Dyslexia pathophysiology

CDC on Dyslexia pathophysiology

Dyslexia pathophysiology in the news

Blogs onDyslexia pathophysiology

Directions to Hospitals Treating Dyslexia

Risk calculators and risk factors forDyslexia pathophysiology

Pathophysiology

Associated Conditions

Dyslexia is a learning disability. It has many underlying causes that are believed to be a brain-based condition that influences the ability to read written language. It is identified in individuals who fail to learn to read in the absence of a verbal or nonverbal intellectual impairment, sensory deficit (e.g., a visual deficit or hearing loss), pervasive developmental deficit or a frank neurological impairment.

The following conditions may also be contributory or overlapping factors, or underlying cause of the dyslexic symptoms as they can lead to difficulty reading:

  • Auditory processing disorder is a condition that affects the ability to encode auditory information. It can lead to problems with auditory working memory and auditory sequencing. Many dyslexics have auditory processing problems including history of auditory reversals. Auditory processing disorder is recognized as one of the major causes of dyslexia.
  • Cluttering is a speech fluency disorder involving both the rate and rhythm of speech, and resulting in impaired speech intelligibility. Speech is erratic and dysrhythmic, consisting of rapid and jerky spurts that usually involve faulty phrasing. The personality of the clutterer bears striking resemblance to the personalities of those with learning disabilities.[1]
  • Dyspraxia is a neurological condition characterized by a marked difficulty in carrying out routine tasks involving balance, fine-motor control, and kinesthetic coordination. Problems with short term memory and organization are typical of dyspraxics. This is most common in dyslexics who also have attention deficit disorder.
  • Verbal dyspraxia is a neurological condition characterized by marked difficulty in the use of speech sounds, which is the result of an immaturity in the speech production area of the brain.
  • Dysgraphia is a disorder which expresses itself primarily during writing or typing, although in some cases it may also affect eye-hand coordination in such direction or sequence oriented processes as tying knots or carrying out a repetitive task. Dysgraphia is distinct from Dyspraxia in that the person may have the word to be written or the proper order of steps in mind clearly, but carries the sequence out in the wrong order.
  • Dyscalculia is a neurological condition characterized by a problem with learning fundamentals and one or more of the basic numerical skills. Often people with this condition can understand very complex mathematical concepts and principles but have difficulty processing formulas and even basic addition and subtraction.
  • Scotopic sensitivity syndrome, also known as Irlen Syndrome, is a term used to describe sensitivity to certain wavelengths of light which interfere with proper visual processing. See also Orthoscopics and asfedia.

References



Linked-in.jpg