Congenital herpes (patient information)
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Congenital herpes On the Web
Editor-in-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S.,M.D.  Phone:617-632-7753; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S.
Synonyms and keywords: HSV; Congenital herpes; Birth-acquired herpes
Birth-acquired herpes is a herpes virus infection that an infant gets (acquires) at the time of birth.
What are the symptoms of Congenital herpes?
- Herpes may only appear as a skin infection. Small, fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) may appear. These blisters rupture, crust over, and finally heal, often leaving a mild scar.
- Herpes infection may also spread throughout the body (called disseminated herpes). In this type, the herpes virus can affect many different parts of the body.
- Herpes infection in the brain is called herpes encephalitis
- The liver, lungs, and kidneys may also be involved
- There may or may not be blisters on the skin
- Newborn infants with herpes that has spread to the brain or other parts of the body are often very sick.
- Symptoms include:
- Bleeding easily
- Breathing difficulties
- Blue appearance (cyanosis)
- Flaring of the nostrils
- Rapid breathing (tachypnea)
- Short periods without breathing (apneic episodes)
- Neonatal jaundice
- Low body temperature (hypothermia)
- Poor feeding
- Skin lesions, fluid-filled blisters
- Herpes that is caught in the period shortly after birth has symptoms similar to those of birth-acquired herpes.
- Intrauterine herpes can cause:
- Eye disease, such as inflammation of the retina (chorioretinitis)
- Severe brain damage
- Skin sores (lesions)
What causes Congenital herpes?
- Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus:
- In the uterus (intrauterine herpes - this is very rare)
- Passing through the birth canal (birth-acquired herpes, the most common method of infection)
- Right after birth (postpartum) from kissing or having other contact with someone who has herpes mouth sores
- If the mother has an active genital herpes infection at the time of delivery, the baby is more likely to become infected during birth. Some mothers may not be aware they have internal (inside the vagina) herpes sores.
- Some people have had herpes infections in the past, but were not aware of it. These people, not knowing that they have herpes, may pass it to their baby.
- Herpes type 2 (genital herpes) is the most common cause of herpes infection in newborn babies, but herpes type 1 (oral herpes) can also occur.
When to seek urgent medical care?
If your baby has any symptoms of birth-acquired herpes, including skin lesions alone, have the baby seen by your health care provider promptly.
- Tests for birth-acquired herpes include:
- DFA test for herpes (scraping from vesicle)
- MRI of the head
- Spinal fluid culture
- Vesicle culture
- Additional tests that may be done if the baby is very sick include:
- Blood gas analysis
- Coagulation studies (PT, PTT)
- Complete blood count
- Electrolyte measurements
- Tests of liver function
- Herpes virus infections in infants are generally treated with medicine given through a vein (intravenous).
- Acyclovir is the most common antiviral medicine used for this purpose. The baby may need to take the medicine for several weeks.
- Often, because these babies are very ill, treatment is done in an intensive care unit.
Where to find medical care for Congenital herpes?
Directions to Hospitals Treating Congenital herpes
What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?
- Infants with systemic herpes or encephalitis often do poorly, despite antiviral medications and early treatment.
- In infants with skin disease, the vesicles may come back repeatedly even after treatment is finished. These recurrences put them at risk for learning disabilities, and may need to be treated.
- Bacterial or fungal infection of skin lesions
- Developmental delay
- Excessive bleeding, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
- Eye problems (chorioretinitis, keratitis)
- Gastrointestinal problems, including diarrhea
- Liver failure
- Lung problems including pneumonia or pneumonitis
- Brain and nervous system (neurological) problems
- Respiratory distress
- Skin lesions
- It is important for women to tell their doctor if they have a history of genital herpes.
- Safer sexual practices can help prevent the mother from getting genital herpes. Mothers who are not infected with herpes cannot pass the herpes virus to the baby during delivery.
- People with cold sores (herpes labialis) should avoid contact with newborn infants. Caregivers who have a cold sore should wear a surgical mask and wash their hands carefully before coming into contact with the infant to prevent transmitting the virus.
- Mothers should speak to their health care providers about the best way to minimize the risk of transmitting herpes to their infant.