Cefdinir

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Cefdinir
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Cefdinir is a 3rd generation cephalosporin that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections in adults and adolescents, acute bacterial otitis media, pharyngitis/tonsillitis and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections in children. Common adverse reactions include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, candida vaginitis.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  • Dosing Information
  • 300 mg q12h for 10 days.
Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis
  • Dosing Information
  • 300 mg q12h for 5 to 10 days or 600 mg q24h for 10 days.
Acute Maxillary Sinusitis
  • Dosing Information
  • 300 mg q12h for 10 days or 600 mg q24h for 10 days
Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis
  • Dosing Information
  • 300 mg q12h for 5 to 10 days or 600 mg q24h for 10 days.
Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
  • Dosing Information
  • 300 mg q12h for 10 days.
  • Patients on Hemodialysis:
  • Hemodialysis removes cefdinir from the body. In patients maintained on chronic hemodialysis, the recommended initial dosage regimen is a 300 mg or 7 mg/kg dose every other day. At the conclusion of each hemodialysis session, 300 mg (or 7 mg/kg) should be given. Subsequent doses (300 mg or 7 mg/kg) are then administered every other day.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Cefdinir in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Cefdinir in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Acute Bacterial Otitis Media
  • Dosing Information
  • 14 mg/kg/day ORALLY in 1 or 2 divided doses for 5 to 7 days (6 to 12 years with mild to moderate illness) or for 7 days (2 to 5 years with mild to moderate illness) or for 10 days (younger than 2 years or severe illness).
Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis
  • Dosing Information
  • 7 mg/kg ORALLY every 12 hr for 5 to 10 days or 14 mg/kg ORALLY every 24 hr for 10 days; maximum 600 mg/day.
Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
  • Dosing Information
  • 7 mg/kg ORALLY every 12 hr for 10 days; maximum 600 mg/day.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Cefdinir in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Cefdinir in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • Cefdinir is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin class of antibiotics.

Warnings

  • BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEFDINIR IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFDINIR, OTHER CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF CEFDINIR IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG Β-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEFDINIR OCCURS, THE DRUG SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.
  • Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Cefdinir, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
  • C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
  • If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Precautions

  • General:
  • Prescribing cefdinir capsules in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug resistant bacteria.
  • As with other broad-spectrum antibiotics, prolonged treatment may result in the possible emergence and overgrowth of resistant organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate alternative therapy should be administered.
  • Cefdinir, as with other broad-spectrum antimicrobials (antibiotics), should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of colitis.
  • In patients with transient or persistent renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), the total daily dose of cefdinir should be reduced because high and prolonged plasma concentrations of cefdinir can result following recommended doses (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Clinical Trials - (Adult and Adolescent Patients)
  • In clinical trials, 5093 adult and adolescent patients (3841 U.S. and 1252 non-U.S.) were treated with the recommended dose of cefdinir capsules (600 mg/day). Most adverse events were mild and self-limiting. No deaths or permanent disabilities were attributed to cefdinir. One hundred forty-seven of 5093 (3%) patients discontinued medication due to adverse events thought by the investigators to be possibly, probably, or definitely associated with cefdinir therapy. The discontinuations were primarily for gastrointestinal disturbances, usually diarrhea or nausea. Nineteen of 5093 (0.4%) patients were discontinued due to rash thought related to cefdinir administration.
  • In the U.S., the following adverse events were thought by investigators to be possibly, probably, or definitely related to cefdinir capsules in multiple-dose clinical trials (N = 3841 cefdinir-treated patients):
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The following laboratory value changes of possible clinical significance, irrespective of relationship to therapy with cefdinir, were seen during clinical trials conducted in the U.S.:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Postmarketing Experience

  • The following adverse experiences and altered laboratory tests, regardless of their relationship to cefdinir, have been reported during extensive postmarketing experience, beginning with approval in Japan in 1991: shock, anaphylaxis with rare cases of fatality, facial and laryngeal edema, feeling of suffocation, serum sickness-like reactions, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, acute hepatitis, cholestasis, fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, jaundice, increased amylase, acute enterocolitis, bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, melena, pseudomembranous colitis, pancytopenia, granulocytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic anemia, acute respiratory failure, asthmatic attack, drug-induced pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonia, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, fever, acute renal failure, nephropathy, bleeding tendency, coagulation disorder, disseminated intravascular coagulation, upper GI bleed, peptic ulcer, ileus, loss of consciousness, allergic vasculitis, possible cefdinir-diclofenac interaction, cardiac failure, chest pain, myocardial infarction, hypertension, involuntary movements, and rhabdomyolysis.

Drug Interactions

  • Antacids (Aluminum- or Magnesium-Containing):
  • Concomitant administration of 300 mg cefdinir capsules with 30 mL Maalox® TC suspension reduces the rate (Cmax) and extent (AUC) of absorption by approximately 40%. Time to reach Cmax is also prolonged by 1 hour. There are no significant effects on cefdinir pharmacokinetics if the antacid is administered 2 hours before or 2 hours after cefdinir. If antacids are required during cefdinir capsules therapy, cefdinir capsules should be taken at least 2 hours before or after the antacid.
  • Probenecid:
  • As with other β-lactam antibiotics, probenecid inhibits the renal excretion of cefdinir, resulting in an approximate doubling in AUC, a 54% increase in peak cefdinir plasma levels, and a 50% prolongation in the apparent elimination t1/2.
  • Iron Supplements and Foods Fortified With Iron:
  • Concomitant administration of cefdinir with a therapeutic iron supplement containing 60 mg of elemental iron (as FeSO4) or vitamins supplemented with 10 mg of elemental iron reduced extent of absorption by 80% and 31%, respectively. If iron supplements are required during cefdinir therapy, cefdinir should be taken at least 2 hours before or after the supplement.
  • The effect of foods highly fortified with elemental iron (primarily iron-fortified breakfast cereals) on cefdinir absorption has not been studied.
  • There have been reports of reddish stools in patients receiving cefdinir. In many cases, patients were also receiving iron-containing products. :*The reddish color is due to the formation of a nonabsorbable complex between cefdinir or its breakdown products and iron in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
  • A false-positive reaction for ketones in the urine may occur with tests using nitroprusside, but not with those using nitroferricyanide. The administration of cefdinir may result in a false-positive reaction for glucose in urine using Clinitest®, Benedict’s solution, or Fehling’s solution. It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as Clinistix® or Tes-Tape®) be used. Cephalosporins are known to occasionally induce a positive direct Coombs’ test.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category B
  • Cefdinir was not teratogenic in rats at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (70 times the human dose based on mg/kg/day, 11 times based on mg/m2/day) or in rabbits at oral doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (0.7 times the human dose based on mg/kg/day, 0.23 times based on mg/m2/day). Maternal toxicity (decreased body weight gain) was observed in rabbits at the maximum tolerated dose of 10 mg/kg/day without adverse effects on offspring. Decreased body weight occurred in rat fetuses at ≥100 mg/kg/day, and in rat offspring at ≥32 mg/kg/day. No effects were observed on maternal reproductive parameters or offspring survival, development, behavior, or reproductive function.
  • There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Cefdinir in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

  • Cefdinir has not been studied for use during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Following administration of single 600 mg doses, cefdinir was not detected in human breast milk.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and efficacy in neonates and infants less than 6 months of age have not been established. Use of cefdinir for the treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis in pediatric patients (age 6 months through 12 years) is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults and adolescents, the similar pathophysiology of acute sinusitis in adult and pediatric patients, and comparative pharmacokinetic data in the pediatric population.

Geriatic Use

  • Efficacy is comparable in geriatric patients and younger adults. While cefdinir has been well-tolerated in all age groups, in clinical trials geriatric patients experienced a lower rate of adverse events, including diarrhea, than younger adults. Dose adjustment in elderly patients is not necessary unless renal function is markedly compromised (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cefdinir with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cefdinir with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cefdinir in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cefdinir in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Cefdinir in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Cefdinir in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Cefdinir in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Cefdinir in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

  • Information on cefdinir overdosage in humans is not available. In acute rodent toxicity studies, a single oral 5600 mg/kg dose produced no adverse effects. Toxic signs and symptoms following overdosage with other β- lactam antibiotics have included nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, diarrhea, and convulsions.

Management

  • Hemodialysis removes cefdinir from the body. This may be useful in the event of a serious toxic reaction from overdosage, particularly if renal function is compromised.


Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Cefdinir in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Cefdinir.png
Cefdinir
Systematic (IUPAC) name
8-[2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroso-
ethenyl]amino-4-ethenyl-7-oxo-2-thia-6-
azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-4-ene-5-carboxylic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 91832-40-5
ATC code J01DD15
PubChem 6915944
DrugBank DB00535
Chemical data
Formula C14H13N5O5S2 
Mol. mass 395.416 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 16% to 21% (dose-dependent)
Protein binding 60% to 70%
Metabolism Negligible
Half life 1.7 ± 0.6 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B(US)

Legal status

?(US)

Routes Oral

Mechanism of Action

  • As with other cephalosporins, bactericidal activity of cefdinir results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Cefdinir is stable in the presence of some, but not all, β-lactamase enzymes. As a result, many organisms resistant to penicillins and some cephalosporins are susceptible to cefdinir.

Structure

  • Cefdinir capsules contains the active ingredient cefdinir, an extended-spectrum, semisynthetic cephalosporin, for oral administration. Chemically, cefdinir is 6R-[6α,7β(Z)]-7-[(2-amino-4 thiazolyl) (hydroxyimino) acetyl]amino]-3-ethenyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid. Cefdinir is a white to slightly brownish-yellow solid. It is slightly soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid and sparingly soluble in 0.1 M pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. The molecular formula is C14H13N5O5S2 and the molecular weight is 395.42. Cefdinir has the structural formula shown below:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Cefdinir capsules contain 300 mg of cefdinir and the following inactive ingredients: carboxymethylcellulose calcium; colloidal silicon dioxide; and magnesium stearate. The capsule shells contain D&C Red #28; FD&C Blue #1; FD&C Red #40; gelatin and titanium dioxide.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Cefdinir in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Absorption:
  • Oral Bioavailability: Maximal plasma cefdinir concentrations occur 2 to 4 hours postdose following capsule or suspension administration. Plasma cefdinir concentrations increase with dose, but the increases are less than dose-proportional from 300 mg (7 mg/kg) to 600 mg (14 mg/kg). Following administration of suspension to healthy adults, cefdinir bioavailability is 120% relative to capsules. Estimated bioavailability of cefdinir capsules is 21% following administration of a 300 mg capsule dose, and 16% following administration of a 600 mg capsule dose. Estimated absolute bioavailability of cefdinir suspension is 25%.
  • Effect of Food: The Cmax and AUC of cefdinir from the capsules are reduced by 16% and 10%, respectively, when given with a high-fat meal. The magnitude of these reductions is not likely to be clinically significant. Therefore, cefdinir may be taken without regard to food.
  • Cefdinir plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameter values following administration of single 300 and 600 mg oral doses of cefdinir to adult subjects are presented in the following table:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Multiple Dosing: Cefdinir does not accumulate in plasma following once- or twice-daily administration to subjects with normal renal function.
  • Distribution:
  • The mean volume of distribution (Vdarea) of cefdinir in adult subjects is 0.35 L/kg (±0.29); in pediatric subjects (age 6 months-12 years), cefdinir Vdarea is 0.67 L/kg (±0.38). Cefdinir is 60% to 70% bound to plasma proteins in both adult and pediatric subjects; binding is independent of concentration.
  • Skin Blister: In adult subjects, median (range) maximal blister fluid cefdinir concentrations of 0.65 (0.33-1.1) and 1.1 (0.49-1.9) mcg/mL were observed 4 to 5 hours following administration of 300 and 600 mg doses, respectively. Mean (±SD) blister Cmax and AUC (0-∞) values were 48% (±13) and 91% (±18) of corresponding plasma values.
  • Tonsil Tissue: In adult patients undergoing elective tonsillectomy, respective median tonsil tissue cefdinir concentrations 4 hours after administration of single 300 and 600 mg doses were 0.25 (0.22-0.46) and 0.36 (0.22-0.80) mcg/g. Mean tonsil tissue concentrations were 24% (±8) of corresponding plasma concentrations.
  • Sinus Tissue: In adult patients undergoing elective maxillary and ethmoid sinus surgery, respective median sinus tissue cefdinir concentrations 4 hours after administration of single 300 and 600 mg doses were <0.12 (<0.12-0.46) and 0.21 (<0.12-2.0) mcg/g. Mean sinus tissue concentrations were 16% (±20) of corresponding plasma concentrations.
  • Lung Tissue: In adult patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy, respective median bronchial mucosa cefdinir concentrations 4 hours after administration of single 300 and 600 mg doses were 0.78 (<0.06-1.33) and 1.14 (<0.06-1.92) mcg/mL, and were 31% (±18) of corresponding plasma concentrations. Respective median epithelial lining fluid concentrations were 0.29 (<0.3-4.73) and 0.49 (<0.3-0.59) mcg/mL, and were 35% (±83) of corresponding plasma concentrations.
  • Middle Ear Fluid: In 14 pediatric patients with acute bacterial otitis media, respective median middle ear fluid cefdinir concentrations 3 hours after administration of single 7 and 14 mg/kg doses were 0.21 (<0.09-0.94) and 0.72 (0.14-1.42) mcg/mL. Mean middle ear fluid concentrations were 15% (±15) of corresponding plasma concentrations.
  • CSF: Data on cefdinir penetration into human cerebrospinal fluid are not available.
  • Metabolism and Excretion:
  • Cefdinir is not appreciably metabolized. Activity is primarily due to parent drug. Cefdinir is eliminated principally via renal excretion with a mean plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) of 1.7 (±0.6) hours. In healthy subjects with normal renal function, renal clearance is 2.0 (±1.0) mL/min/kg, and apparent oral clearance is 11.6 (±6.0) and 15.5 (±5.4) mL/min/kg following doses of 300 and 600 mg, respectively. Mean percent of dose recovered unchanged in the urine following 300 and 600 mg doses is 18.4% (±6.4) and 11.6% (±4.6), respectively. Cefdinir clearance is reduced in patients with renal dysfunction (see Special Populations: Patients with Renal Insufficiency).
  • Because renal excretion is the predominant pathway of elimination, dosage should be adjusted in patients with markedly compromised renal function or who are undergoing hemodialysis (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
  • Special Populations:
  • Patients with Renal Insufficiency: Cefdinir pharmacokinetics were investigated in 21 adult subjects with varying degrees of renal function. Decreases in cefdinir elimination rate, apparent oral clearance (CL/F), and renal clearance were approximately proportional to the reduction in creatinine clearance (CLcr). As a result, plasma cefdinir concentrations were higher and persisted longer in subjects with renal impairment than in those without renal impairment. In subjects with CLcr between 30 and 60 mL/min, Cmax and t1/2 increased by approximately 2-fold and AUC by approximately 3-fold. In subjects with CLcr <30 mL/min, Cmax increased by approximately 2-fold, t1/2 by approximately 5-fold, and AUC by approximately 6-fold. Dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with markedly compromised renal function (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min; see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
  • Hemodialysis: Cefdinir pharmacokinetics were studied in 8 adult subjects undergoing hemodialysis. Dialysis (4 hours duration) removed 63% of cefdinir from the body and reduced apparent elimination t1/2 from 16 (±3.5) to 3.2 (±1.2) hours. Dosage adjustment is recommended in this patient population (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
  • Hepatic Disease: Because cefdinir is predominantly renally eliminated and not appreciably metabolized, studies in patients with hepatic impairment were not conducted. It is not expected that dosage adjustment will be required in this population.
  • Geriatric Patients: The effect of age on cefdinir pharmacokinetics after a single 300 mg dose was evaluated in 32 subjects 19 to 91 years of age. Systemic exposure to cefdinir was substantially increased in older subjects (N=16), Cmax by 44% and AUC by 86%. This increase was due to a reduction in cefdinir clearance. The apparent volume of distribution was also reduced, thus no appreciable alterations in apparent elimination t1/2 were observed (elderly: 2.2 ± 0.6 hours vs young: 1.8 ± 0.4 hours). Since cefdinir clearance has been shown to be primarily related to changes in renal function rather than age, elderly patients do not require dosage adjustment unless they have markedly compromised renal function (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min, see Patients with Renal Insufficiency, above).
  • Gender and Race: The results of a meta-analysis of clinical pharmacokinetics (N=217) indicated no significant impact of either gender or race on cefdinir pharmacokinetics.
Microbiology
  • As with other cephalosporins, bactericidal activity of cefdinir results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Cefdinir is stable in the presence of some, but not all, β-lactamase enzymes. As a result, many organisms resistant to penicillins and some cephalosporins are susceptible to cefdinir.
  • Cefdinir has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in INDICATIONS AND USAGE.
  • Aerobic Gram-Positive Microorganisms:
  • Staphylococcus aureus (including β-lactamase producing strains)
  • NOTE: Cefdinir is inactive against methicillin-resistant staphylococci.
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only)
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Aerobic Gram-Negative Microorganisms:
  • Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase producing strains)
  • Haemophilus parainfluenzae (including β-lactamase producing strains)
  • Moraxella catarrhalis (including β-lactamase producing strains)
  • The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.
  • Cefdinir exhibits in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1 mcg/mL or less against (≥90%) strains of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of cefdinir in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
  • Aerobic Gram-Positive Microorganisms:
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains only)
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Viridans group streptococci
  • NOTE: Cefdinir is inactive against Enterococcus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species.
  • Aerobic Gram-Negative Microorganisms:
  • Citrobacter diversus
  • Escherichia coli
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • NOTE: Cefdinir is inactive against Pseudomonas and Enterobacter species.
  • Susceptibility Tests:
  • Dilution Techniques: Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method(1) (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of cefdinir powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • For Streptococcus spp:
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae that are susceptible to penicillin (MIC ≤0.06 mcg/mL), or streptococci other than S. pneumoniae that are susceptible to penicillin (MIC ≤0.12 mcg/mL), can be considered susceptible to cefdinir. Testing of cefdinir against penicillin-intermediate or penicillin-resistant isolates is not recommended. Reliable interpretive criteria for cefdinir are not available.
  • A report of "Susceptible" indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentration usually achievable. A report of "Intermediate" indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of "Resistant" indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.
  • Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of laboratory procedures. Standard cefdinir powder should provide the following MIC values:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Diffusion Techniques: Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure(2) requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 5 mcg cefdinir to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to cefdinir.
  • Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 5 mcg cefdinir disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • For Streptococcus spp:
  • Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae should be tested against a 1 mcg oxacillin disk. Isolates with oxacillin zone sizes ≥20 mm are susceptible to penicillin and can be considered susceptible to cefdinir. Streptococci other than S. pneumoniae should be tested with a 10 unit penicillin disk. Isolates with penicillin zone sizes ≥28 mm are susceptible to penicillin and can be considered susceptible to cefdinir.
  • As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 5 mcg cefdinir disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory quality control strains:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • The carcinogenic potential of cefdinir has not been evaluated. No mutagenic effects were seen in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames) or point mutation assay at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus (HGPRT) in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells. No clastogenic effects were observed in vitro in the structural chromosome aberration assay in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells or in vivo in the micronucleus assay in mouse bone marrow. In rats, fertility and reproductive performance were not affected by cefdinir at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (70 times the human dose based on mg/kg/day, 11 times based on mg/m2/day).

Clinical Studies

  • Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia:
  • In a controlled, double-blind study in adults and adolescents conducted in the U.S., cefdinir BID was compared with cefaclor 500 mg TID. Using strict evaluability and microbiologic/clinical response criteria 6 to 14 days posttherapy, the following clinical cure rates, presumptive microbiologic eradication rates, and statistical outcomes were obtained:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In a second controlled, investigator-blind study in adults and adolescents conducted primarily in Europe, cefdinir BID was compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate 500/125 mg TID. Using strict evaluability and clinical response criteria 6 to 14 days posttherapy, the following clinical cure rates, presumptive microbiologic eradication rates, and statistical outcomes were obtained:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Streptococcal Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis:
  • In four controlled studies conducted in the U.S., cefdinir was compared with 10 days of penicillin in adult, adolescent, and pediatric patients. Two studies (one in adults and adolescents, the other in pediatric patients) compared 10 days of cefdinir QD or BID to penicillin 250 mg or 10 mg/kg QID. Using strict evaluability and microbiologic/clinical response criteria 5 to 10 days posttherapy, the following clinical cure rates, microbiologic eradication rates, and statistical outcomes were obtained:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Two studies (one in adults and adolescents, the other in pediatric patients) compared 5 days of cefdinir BID to 10 days of penicillin 250 mg or 10 mg/kg QID. Using strict evaluability and microbiologic/ clinical response criteria 4 to 10 days posttherapy, the following clinical cure rates, microbiologic eradication rates, and statistical outcomes were obtained:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

How Supplied

  • Cefdinir capsules USP, 300 mg, size ‘0’ capsules having blue cap imprinted twice with "LUPIN" (in black ink) and purple body imprinted twice with "CEFDINIR" (in white ink) containing off white to creamish granular slug, are available as follows:
  • 60 Capsules/Bottle NDC 68180-711-60
  • Store the capsules at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).

Storage

There is limited information regarding Cefdinir Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

Cefdinir NDC 00933160.jpg

Drug Name: Cefdinir
Ingredient(s): CEFDINIR[CEFDINIR]
Imprint: 93;3160
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): Green, Purple
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 22
Score: 1
NDC:00933160

Drug Label Author: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Cefdinir NDC 07812176.jpg

Drug Name: Cefdinir
Ingredient(s): CEFDINIR[CEFDINIR]
Imprint: Sandoz;663
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): Blue
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 22
Score: 1
NDC:07812176

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Cefdinir NDC 658620177.jpg

Drug Name: Cefdinir
Ingredient(s): CEFDINIR[CEFDINIR]
Imprint: E99
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): Purple, Turquoise
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 21
Score: 1
NDC:658620177

Drug Label Author: Aurobindo Pharma Limited

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Cefdinir NDC 681800711.jpg

Drug Name: Cefdinir
Ingredient(s): CEFDINIR[CEFDINIR]
Imprint: LUPIN;CEFDINIR
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): Blue, Purple
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 22
Score: 1
NDC:681800711

Drug Label Author: LUPIN PHARMACEUTICALS INC

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.

Package and Label Display Panel

Cefdinir15.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Cefdinir16.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including cefdinir capsules should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When cefdinir capsules is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by cefdinir capsules or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
  • Antacids containing magnesium or aluminum interfere with the absorption of cefdinir. If this type of antacid is required during cefdinir therapy, cefdinir should be taken at least 2 hours before or after the antacid.
  • Iron supplements, including multivitamins that contain iron, interfere with the absorption of cefdinir. If iron supplements are required during cefdinir therapy, cefdinir should be taken at least 2 hours before or after the supplement.
  • Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Cefdinir interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Cefdinir Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "CEFDINIR (cefdinir) capsule [LUPIN PHARMACEUTICALS INC]".

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