Blue sclera

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Blue sclera
Blue sclera.jpg
Blue sclera in osteogenesis imperfecta.
Image courtesy of Professor Peter Anderson DVM PhD and published with permission © PEIR, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Carlos A Lopez, M.D. [2]


The sclera is a vascularized connective tissue structure of the eye composed of several types of collagen fibers, mainly collagen type I as well as elastin, proteoglycans and glycoproteins. Blue sclera is caused by the slimness and transparency of the collagen fibers of the sclera that allow the visualization of the uvea.


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Loeys-Dietz syndrome,
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Retigabine
Ear Nose Throat Van der Hoeve's Syndrome
Endocrine Laron dwarfism
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Alkaptonuria , developmental delay hypotonia extremities hypertrophy, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, Juvenile Paget's disease, laron dwarfism, lobstein disease , Loeys-Dietz syndrome, marfan's syndrome , marshall-smith-weaver syndrome, Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, recurrent hereditary polyserositis, willems de vries syndrome.
Hematologic Diamond-Blackfan anemia, hypophosphatasia.
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Juvenile Paget's disease, lobstein disease , Loeys-Dietz syndrome, marfan's syndrome , marshall-smith-weaver syndrome, Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, pelvic dysplasia arthrogryposis of lower limbs, pilo dento ungular dysplasia microcephaly, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, ray-peterson-scott syndrome, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia joint laxity, Van der Hoeve's Syndrome.
Neurologic Bd syndrome, chitayat-moore-del bigio syndrome, daentl-townsend-siegel syndrome, developmental delay hypotonia extremities hypertrophy, osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, ray-peterson-scott syndrome.
Nutritional / Metabolic Alkaptonuria , hypophosphatasia.
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic Alkaptonuria , Bd syndrome, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Grant syndrome, hypophosphatasia, incontinentia pigmenti , Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, recurrent hereditary polyserositis, Van der Hoeve's Syndrome, Vater-like syndrome, with pulmonary hypertension, abnormal ears and growth deficiency .
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric Chitayat-moore-del bigio syndrome
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte Daentl-townsend-siegel syndrome
Rheum / Immune / Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order