Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia endomyocardial biopsy
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Transvenous biopsy of the right ventricle can be highly specific for ARVD, but it has low sensitivity. False positives include other conditions with fatty infiltration of the ventricle, such as chronic alcohol abuse and Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy.
False negatives are common, however, because the disease progresses typically from the epicardium to the endocardium (with the biopsy sample coming from the endocardium), and the segmental nature of the disease. Also, due to the paper-thin right ventricular free wall that is common in this disease process, most biopsy samples are taken from the ventricular septum, which is commonly not involved in the disease process.
A biopsy sample that is consistent with ARVD would have > 3% fat, >40% fibrous tissue, and <45% myocytes.