Antiphospholipid syndrome history and symptoms
Antiphospholipid syndrome Microchapters
Differentiating Antiphospholipid syndrome from other Diseases
Antiphospholipid syndrome history and symptoms On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Antiphospholipid syndrome history and symptoms
Risk calculators and risk factors for Antiphospholipid syndrome history and symptoms
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Feham Tariq, MD 
Antiphospholipid syndrome can cause (arterial/venous) blood clots (in any organ system) or pregnancy-related complications (especially miscarriages in the second or third trimester). In APS patients, the most common venous event is deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities (blood clot of the deep veins of the legs). The most common arterial event is a stroke. Patients presenting with antiphosphoplipid syndrome have a positive history of deep venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction and stroke. Last trimester miscarriages, history of heart murmurs or cardiac valvular vegetations and hemolytic anemias may also be present.
Patients presenting with antiphosphoplipid syndrome (APS) may have a positive history of:
- Thrombosis such as DVT/PE, MI, transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke, especially if recurrent, at an earlier age, or in the absence of other known risk factors.
- Miscarriage (especially late trimester or recurrent) or premature birth
- History of nephropathy
- History of hematologic abnormalities, such as thrombocytopenia or hemolytic anemia
- History of heart murmur or cardiac valvular vegetations
- Nonthrombotic neurologic symptoms, such as migraine headaches, chorea, seizures, transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or dementia.
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Unexplained adrenal insufficiency
- Avascular necrosis of bone in the absence of other risk factors
More Common Symptoms
Common symptoms of APS can be divided into major and minor features:
- Weight loss
- Venous thrombosis (most common site is the lower extremities) such as deep venous thrombosis
- Arterial thrombosis (most common in the cerebral vasculature) such as stroke or transient ischemic attack
- Recurrent fetal loss
Less Common Symptoms
Less common symptoms of APS include:
- Myocardial Infarction
- Pulmonary embolism
- Amaurosis fugax
- Retinal infarct
- Peripheral or deep venous occlusion
- Raynaud’s syndrome
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Avascular necrosis
- Recurrent fetal loss (especially in the 2nd or 3rd trimester)
- Adrenal insufficiency
- ↑ Jayakody Arachchillage D, Greaves M (2014). "The chequered history of the antiphospholipid syndrome". Br J Haematol. 165 (5): 609–17. doi:10.1111/bjh.12848. PMID 24684307.
- ↑ Bertolaccini ML, Atsumi T, Escudero Contreras A, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR (2001). "The value of IgA antiphospholipid testing for diagnosis of antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus". J Rheumatol. 28 (12): 2637–43. PMID 11764209.
- ↑ Popa A, Voinea L, Pop M, Stana D, Dascalu AM, Alexandrescu C; et al. (2008). "[Primary antiphospholipid syndrome]". Oftalmologia. 52 (1): 13–7. PMID 18714484.