Analgesic nephropathy overview
Analgesic nephropathy Microchapters
Analgesic nephropathy overview On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Analgesic nephropathy overview
Analgesic nephropathy is a disorder caused by long-term use of analgesic drugs, mainly phenacetin and combinations containing phenacetin. This resulted in the withdrawal of phenacetin from most markets around the world since over 30 years ago, which has led to the disappearance of classic analgesic nephropathy caused by phenacetin. The main findings in analgesic nephropathy are renal papillary necrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis. The kidney injury may progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although non-phenacetin analgesics (such as NSAIDs, aspirin and acetaminophen) or their combinations have been reported in some studies as causes to analgesic nephropathy, but there is insufficient evidence that suggests these drugs cause analgesic nephropathy.
In 1953, the association between analgesic drugs and chronic renal disease was first reported in German. In 1977, Australia was first to legally ban phenacetin. In 1983, phenacetin was withdrawn from the US markets.
The pathogenesis of analgesic nephropathy caused by phenacetin may be due to several reasons. Toxic metabolites of phenacetin cause capillary sclerosis in the renal medulla, which results in renal papillary necrosis, tubulointerstitial nephropathy and cortical atrophy. Renal ischemia and renal papillary necrosis may be result from the methemoglobinemia caused by phenacetin. Additionally, It has been reported that the concentration of phenacetin is higher at the papillary which is suggestive of direct damage to the renal papillary cells. Although non-phenacetin analgesics (such as NSAIDs, aspirin and acetaminophen) or their combinations have been reported in some studies as causes to analgesic nephropathy, but there is insufficient evidence that suggests these drugs cause analgesic nephropathy.
There is a strong association between phenacetin and analgesic nephropathy which has led to the disappearing of classic analgesic nephropathy after the removal of phenacetin from the markets over 30 years ago. Although non-phenacetin analgesics (such as NSAIDs, aspirin and acetaminophen) or their combinations have been reported in some studies as causes to analgesic nephropathy, but there is insufficient evidence that suggests these drugs cause analgesic nephropathy.
Differentiating Analgesic nephropathy from other Diseases
Analgesic nephropathy should be differentiated with other disorders that cause renal papillary necrosis, such as: diabetic nephropathy, renal crisis in sickle cell disease, pyelonephritis, obstructive uropathy, renal tuberculosis, alcohol-induced nephropathy, systemic vasculitis and renal vein thrombosis.
Risk factors for renal insufficiency from NSAIDs include: history of renal disorder, older age, congestive heart failure (CHF), cirrhosis with ascites, nephrotic syndrome, history of hemorrhage or surgery, vomiting and diarrhea.
There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for analgesic nephropathy.
Natural History, Complications and Prognosis
The prognosis of analgesic nephropathy depends on the scarring and damage to the renal tissue. Most patients in early stages recover to normal renal function after stopping the analgesic drug, however some may progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Complications of analgesic nephropathy include: urinary tract infections, varying degrees of renal failure and end stage renal disease (ESRD).
Epidemiology and Demographics
There is insufficient evidence about the incidence, prevalence and racial predilection of analgesic nephropathy. However, the classic analgesic nephropathy is disappearing after the removal of phenacetin from the markets over 30 years ago. Most patients with analgesic nephropathy have been reported to be middle age or older with a history of chronic pain. Studies suggest that analgesic nephropathy is more conman in females than males.
Diagnostic Study of Choice
History and Symptoms
In physical examination of patients with analgesic nephropathy checking for the followings should be considered: headache, upper gastrointestinal disease (such as peptic ulcer), anemia, urinary tract infections, and hypertension.
The laboratory tests and findings in analgesic nephropathy may include: urinary examination (sterile pyuria, hematuria, proteinuria and bacteriuria) and blood tests (anemia and renal failure).
There are no ECG findings associated with analgesic nephropathy.
There are no ultrasound findings associated with analgesic nephropathy. However, ultrasound of the abdomen, kidneys and the urinary bladder could be helpful in ruling out other causes of nephropathy (obstruction or infection).
There is insufficient evidence suggesting MRI findings associated with analgesic nephropathy.
Other Imaging Findings
There are no other imaging findings associated with analgesic nephropathy.
Other Diagnostic studies
There are no other diagnostic studies associated with analgesic nephropathy.
Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy
There is insufficient evidence about the cost-effectiveness of therapy in analgesic nephropathy.
Future or Investigational Therapies
No further or investigational therapies have been suggested in analgesic nephropathy.
- Spühler O, Zollinger HU (1953). "Die chronisch-interstitielle Nephritis". Z Klin Med (in German). 151 (1): 1–50. PMID 13137299.
- Michielsen P, de Schepper P (2001). "Trends of analgesic nephropathy in two high-endemic regions with different legislation". J Am Soc Nephrol. 12 (3): 550–6. PMID 11181803.
- "List of drug products that have been withdrawn or removed from the market for reasons of safety or effectiveness. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule". Fed Regist. 64 (44): 10944–7. 1999. PMID 10557618.
- Mihatsch MJ, Hofer HO, Gudat F, Knüsli C, Torhorst J, Zollinger HU (1983). "Capillary sclerosis of the urinary tract and analgesic nephropathy". Clin Nephrol. 20 (6): 285–301. PMID 6641031.
- Mihatsch MJ, Khanlari B, Brunner FP (2006). "Obituary to analgesic nephropathy--an autopsy study". Nephrol Dial Transplant. 21 (11): 3139–45. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfl390. PMID 16891638.
- Gault MH, Shahidi NT, Barber VE (1974). "Methemoglobin formation in analgesic nephropathy". Clin Pharmacol Ther. 15 (5): 521–7. doi:10.1002/cpt1974155521. PMID 4827469.
- Bluemle LW, Goldberg M (1969). "Renal accumulation of salicylate and phenacetin: possible mechanisms in the nephropathy of analgesic abuse". J Clin Invest. 47 (11): 2507–14. doi:10.1172/JCI105932. PMC 297415. PMID 5813230.
- Feinstein AR, Heinemann LA, Curhan GC, Delzell E, Deschepper PJ, Fox JM; et al. (2000). "Relationship between nonphenacetin combined analgesics and nephropathy: a review. Ad Hoc Committee of the International Study Group on Analgesics and Nephropathy". Kidney Int. 58 (6): 2259–64. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00410.x. PMID 11115060.
- Delzell E, Shapiro S (1998). "A review of epidemiologic studies of nonnarcotic analgesics and chronic renal disease". Medicine (Baltimore). 77 (2): 102–21. doi:10.1097/00005792-199803000-00003. PMID 9556702.
- Yaxley J (2016). "Common Analgesic Agents and Their Roles in Analgesic Nephropathy: A Commentary on the Evidence". Korean J Fam Med. 37 (6): 310–316. doi:10.4082/kjfm.2016.37.6.310. PMC 5122661. PMID 27900067.
- "StatPearls". 2020. PMID 31082145.
- Chalhoub NE, Riley K, Siddiqui N, Assaly R, Shahrour K, Booth R; et al. (2015). "Renal Papillary Necrosis Due to Invasive Candida Infection in a Morbidly Obese Patient". J Urol. 194 (4): 1107–8. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2015.07.036. PMID 26184064.
- Kawaguchi Y, Mori H, Izumi Y, Ito M (2018). "Renal Papillary Necrosis with Diabetes and Urinary Tract Infection". Intern Med. 57 (22): 3343. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.0858-18. PMC 6288002. PMID 29984778.
- Henrich WL (1998). "Analgesic nephropathy". Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 109: 147–58, discussion 158-9. PMC 2194329. PMID 9601134.
- Nanra RS (1980). "Clinical and pathological aspects of analgesic nephropathy". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 10 Suppl 2: 359S–368S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1980.tb01824.x. PMC 1430193. PMID 7002190.
- Nanra RS, Stuart-Taylor J, de Leon AH, White KH (1978). "Analgesic nephropathy: etiology, clinical syndrome, and clinicopathologic correlations in Australia". Kidney Int. 13 (1): 79–92. doi:10.1038/ki.1978.11. PMID 362034.
- Yaxley J (2016). "Common analgesic agents and their role in analgesic nephropathy: A commentary of the evidence". Int J Risk Saf Med. 28 (4): 189–196. doi:10.3233/JRS-170735. PMID 28582877.
- Gault MH, Wilson DR (1978). "Analgesic nephropathy in Canada: clinical syndrome, management, and outcome". Kidney Int. 13 (1): 58–63. doi:10.1038/ki.1978.8. PMID 713269.
- "Analgesic Nephropathy - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf".
- de Broe ME, Elseviers MM (1998). "Analgesic nephropathy". N. Engl. J. Med. 338 (7): 446–52. PMID 9459649. Unknown parameter
- Linton AL (1972). "Renal disease due to analgesics. I. Recognition of the problem of analgesic nephropathy". Can Med Assoc J. 107 (8): 749–51. PMC 1941002. PMID 4638849. Unknown parameter