Adult T-cell leukemia risk factors

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Adult T-cell leukemia Microchapters



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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Haytham Allaham, M.D. [2]; Grammar Reviewer: Natalie Harpenau, B.S.[3]


Common risk factors in the development of adult T-cell leukemia among HTLV carriers are vertical transmission of HTLV infection during labor, male sex, and specific human leukocyte antigens such as HLA-A 26, HLA-B 4002, and HLA-B 4801.

Risk Factors


  1. Iwanaga M, Watanabe T, Yamaguchi K (2012). "Adult T-cell leukemia: a review of epidemiological evidence". Front Microbiol. 3: 322. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00322. PMC 3437524. PMID 22973265.
  2. Hisada M, Okayama A, Shioiri S, Spiegelman DL, Stuver SO, Mueller NE (November 1998). "Risk factors for adult T-cell leukemia among carriers of human T-lymphotropic virus type I". Blood. 92 (10): 3557–61. PMID 9808547.
  3. Kondo H, Soda M, Sawada N, Inoue M, Imaizumi Y, Miyazaki Y, Iwanaga M, Tanaka Y, Mizokami M, Tsugane S (September 2016). "Smoking is a risk factor for development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Japanese human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 carriers". Cancer Causes Control. 27 (9): 1059–66. doi:10.1007/s10552-016-0784-8. PMID 27412633.