|IUPAC name||5'-Adenylic acid|
3D model (JSmol)
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|Molar mass||347.22 g/mol|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5'-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. AMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine.
Production and degradation
- 2 ADP → ATP + AMP
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- ADP → AMP + Pi
- ATP → AMP + PPi
When RNA is broken down by living systems, nucleoside monophosphates, including adenosine monophosphate, are formed.
AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows:
- AMP + ATP → 2 ADP (adenylate kinase in the opposite direction)
- 2 ADP + 2 Pi → 2 ATP (this step is most often performed in aerobes by the ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation)
In a catabolic pathway, adenosine monophosphate can be converted to uric acid, which is excreted from the body.
AMP can also exist as a cyclic structure known as cyclic AMP (or cAMP). Within certain cells the enzyme adenylate cyclase makes cAMP from ATP, and typically this reaction is regulated by hormones such as adrenaline or glucagon. cAMP plays an important role in intracellular signaling.
Application as a bitterness suppressor
To human tastes, the bitterness-suppressing quality of AMP interprets as food seeming 'sweeter'. This makes lower-calorie food products more palatable, making AMP potentially a lucrative solution for food manufacturers as they respond to pressure from consumers and regulators concerned about social trends towards obesity. AMP has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a 'Bitter Blocker' additive to foodstuffs.
- Computational Chemistry Wiki
- Blocking taste receptor activation of gustducin inhibits gustatory responses to bitter compounds