ANCA associated vasculitis
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Ali Poyan Mehr, M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Krzysztof Wierzbicki M.D. 
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Brief overview describing the disease entities, their similarities and differences here.
|Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis||Granulomatosis with polyangiitis||Microscopic polyangiitis|
|Classification||According to the American College of Rheumatology 4 out of 6 criteria need to be established:
· Eosinophilia >10
· Neuropathy (mononeuropathy or polyneuropathy)
· Pulmonary infiltration, non-fixed
· Paranasal sinus abnormality
· Biopsy with extravascular eosinophilic infiltration
Lanham’s criteria, all of the following need to be present:
· Eosinophilia peak of >1.5x109cell/L
· Systemic vasculitis, two or greater extra pulmonary sites
|According to the American College of Rheumatology 2 out of 4 criteria need to be established:
· Abnormal urinary sediment ( red cell casts or > 5 red blood cells per hpf)
· Abnormal chest radiography ( nodules, cavities, or fixed infiltrates)
· Nasal discharge or oral ulcers
· Biopsy with granulomatous inflammation
According to the European League Against Rheumatism, Pediatric Rheumatology European Society and Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization three out of the six criteria are established:
· Histopathology shows granuloma
· Upper respiratory tract involvement
· Stenosis of larynx, trachea and bronchioles
· Pulmonary involvement
· Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
2 to 3 per million persons; higher prevalence’s seen in Europeans.
0.5 to 6.8 per million persons
Mean age 48 years; incidence occurs in females between 1st decade to 7th decade. Males are similarly as females.
no sex predominance is seen
Prevalence of the disease is seen in both Asiatic and European populations; displaying equal distribution.
Europe: 23.7 to 160 per million persons. Prevalence in the United States: 3 per 100,000 persons.
Europe: 3 to 14.4 per million persons
Children: 0.03 to 3.2 per 100,000 persons
Mean age 58 years; incidence occurs in females during 7th decade and males in the 8th decade. Commonly seen in middle aged and elderly patients. In children the ages are 4 to 17 however, the disease is rarely seen.
Males are more commonly affected; the overall ratio is 1.2 to 1. However, the ratio is dependent upon geographical location. In children females are commonly seen with the disease.
Affects Caucasian race, other races may be affected however the rates are lower.
1 to 3 per 100,000 persons.
Southern Sweden: 94 per million persons
Spain: 11.6 per million persons
United Kingdom: 5.9 per million persons
United States: 3.6 per millions persons
Norway: 2.7 per million persons
*during the last 2 decades the rate of incidences have increased, which is attributed to the availability of ANCA testing.
seen during the 5th and 6th decade of life
Males are more commonly affected than females; overall ratio is 1.8 to 1.
Typically seen in patients of Asiatic and southern European descents.
|Signs and symptoms||Prodromal phase:
Arthralgia, myalgia, pyrexia, weight loss, asthma, nasal polys, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, otitis media, sensorineural hearing loss, asthenia
Peripheral eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltrates, ground glass opacities, thickening of bronchial wall, endomyocardial infiltrates, arrhythmia, pericarditis, abdominal pain
Pyrexia, weight loss, fatigue, multiplex mononeuritis, cerebral infarcts, rapid progressive glomerulonephritis, pauci-immune focal and segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis, palpable purpura and nodules, maculopapular erythema,
Livedo reticularis, petechiae, ecchymoses
Malaise, pyrexia, weight loss, arthralgia, cough, dyspnea, purpura, and abnormal urinary sediment
Glomerulonephritis, hematuria, elevated serum creatinine, edema, hypertension, red cell casts
Renal inflammation (glomerulonephritis), weight loss, skin lesions, nerve damage, pyrexia.
Hematuria, proteinuria, red cell casts
|Complications||Pericarditis, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebral hemorrhage, gastrointestinal bleeding, status asthmaticus||Vision loss, subglottic manifestations, auditory loss, renal failure, infections due to prolong immunsuppressants||Abdominal sepsis, meningoencephalitis, alveolar hemorrhage, osteoarticular disease, end stage renal failure.|
|Physical examination||Hypertension, palpable purpura, nodules, nasal polyps, allergic rhinitits, paranasal sinsusitis, asthma, pneumonitis, hemoptysis, myocarditis, uremia, gastroenteritis, bowel ischemia/ perforation, numbness or tingling of extremities, peripheral neuropathy||Sinusitis, scleritis, keratitis, uveitis, conjunctivitis, saddle nose deformity, atelectasis, pleural effusion, dyspnea, hemoptysis, pericardial rub, mononeurtitis multiplex, cranial nerve paralysis, palpable purpura, subcutaneous nodules, ulcerations||Pyrexia, leukocytoclastic angiitis, palpable purpura, livedo reticularis, necrosis, necrotizing nodules, rales at the base of lungs, sinusitis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, pericarditis, gastrointestinal bleeding, ischemia/ perforation of bowel, pancreatitis, retinal hemorrhage, scleritis, uveitis, uremia, mononeuritis multiplex, orchitis|
|Prognosis||If left untreated, the disease is fatal. Patients receiving no treatment have an estimated survival rate of 20 to 30%. The prognosis is heavily dependent upon starting therapy.||If left untreated, the disease may progress to morbidity and mortality as soon as 4 weeks, with an average estimated mortality of 5 months. In the past the survival for 1 year was 18%, today the survival rate is estimated at 95% for 1 year, 83% for 5 years and 65% for 10 years.||If left untreated, the disease is fatal. Patients receiving no treatment have an estimated survival rate of 10% in 2 years. The mortality rate today is 12% for 4 years and 44% in 10 years due to the advent of glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide.|
|Gross pathology||Nodular swelling along small arteries (heart, liver, and renal)
Infarcts, hemorrhage and scarring of affected organs
Pulmonary artery occlusion
Patchy consolidation (lower portion of lung)
Fibrosis, ventricular hypertrophy of both ventricles, patchy myocardial scars, and endocardial fibrosis
necrosis of bone and cartilage
|Hemorrhagic necrotizing alveolar capillaries
Fibrinous necrosis of lung
|Microscopic pathology||Eosinophilic infiltrates with necrosis
Giant cell vasculitis with eosinophils
Interstitial and perivascular necrotizing granulomas
|Focal and segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis
presence of non-caseating granuloma
at times varied multinucleated giant cells
|Focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Minimal deposition of immunoglobulins
Compliment in glomeruli and renal vasculature
|Serological findings||Perinuclear ANCA (pANCA) 30-40% positive
Myeloperoxidase antigen 40% sensitivity
Proteinase 3 antigen <5% sensitivity
|Cytoplasmic ANCA (cANCA) 90% positive
Myeloperoxidase antigen 10% sensitivity
Proteinase 3 antigen 70-80% sensitivity
|Perinuclear ANCA (pANCA) 60-80% positive
Myeloperoxidase antigen 30% sensitivity
Proteinase 3 antigen 60% sensitivity
|Laboratory findings||Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, hypereosinophilia, elevated immunoglobulin E titers (IgE)||Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, elevated blood urea nitrogen, elevated serum creatinine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, red blood casts||Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, elevated blood urea nitrogen, elevated serum creatinine, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, proteinuria, hematuria, red cell casts, leukocytosis|
|Biopsy||Renal biopsy is gold standard in establishing the disease.||Renal biopsy is gold standard in establishing the disease. Under electron microscopy: subendothelial edema, microthrombosis, and degranulation of neutrophils.
Light microscopy: necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis
|Biopsy of involved skin, lung, renal and nerve can be made to establish the disease.
Skin biopsy: immunoglobulins and complement components
crescent formation with focal necrosis
Vascular necrosis of small and medium sized vessels
Glucocorticoid + cyclophosphamide
IV immunoglobulins + glucocorticoids + immunosuppressant in patients with flare-ups due to certain medication or during pregnancy.
Glucocorticoid + cyclophosphamide
Glucocorticoid + immunosuppressant + plasmapheresis