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Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
Symbols AMACR ; RACE
External IDs OMIM: 604489 MGI1098273 HomoloGene7410

| | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Human | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Mouse |-

    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Entrez 
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| 23600
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| 17117


     | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Ensembl
     | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| na
     | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| ENSMUSG00000022244


    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Uniprot
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| na
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| Q3TUS8


    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Refseq
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd" | NM_014324 (mRNA)
NP_055139 (protein)
| bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd" |NM_008537 (mRNA)
NP_032563 (protein)


    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Location
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| na
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"|  Chr 15: 10.93 -  10.94 Mb 



    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Pubmed search 
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| [1]
| bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| [2]
Species Human Mouse
Entrez n/a n/a
Ensembl n/a n/a
UniProt n/a n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) n/a n/a
RefSeq (protein) n/a n/a
Location (UCSC) n/a n/a
PubMed search n/a n/a

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Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, also known as AMACR, is a human gene.[1]

The AMACR protein helps to metabolize certain fatty acids within the body. Several studies have suggested that AMACR can be used as a prostate cancer biomarker[2].


  1. "Entrez Gene: AMACR alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase".
  2. Rubin MA, Bismar TA, Andren O, et al. Decreased {alpha}-methylacyl CoA racemase expression in localized prostate cancer is associated with an increased rate of biochemical recurrence and cancer-specific death. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:1424–32

Further reading

  • Jiang Z, Woda BA, Wu CL, Yang XJ (2004). "Discovery and clinical application of a novel prostate cancer marker: alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S)". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 122 (2): 275–89. doi:10.1309/EJUY-UQPE-X1MG-68MK. PMID 15323145.
  • Bautch S (1991). "Wisconsin doctor selected as national symbol of physicians' sacrifices". Wis. Med. J. 90 (8): 485–7. PMID 1926890.
  • Schmitz W, Albers C, Fingerhut R, Conzelmann E (1995). "Purification and characterization of an alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase from human liver". Eur. J. Biochem. 231 (3): 815–22. PMID 7649182.
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1–2): 171–4. PMID 8125298.
  • Schmitz W, Helander HM, Hiltunen JK, Conzelmann E (1997). "Molecular cloning of cDNA species for rat and mouse liver alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemases". Biochem. J. 326 ( Pt 3): 883–9. PMID 9307041.
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K; et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1–2): 149–56. PMID 9373149.
  • Ferdinandusse S, Denis S, Clayton PT; et al. (2000). "Mutations in the gene encoding peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase cause adult-onset sensory motor neuropathy". Nat. Genet. 24 (2): 188–91. doi:10.1038/72861. PMID 10655068.
  • Kotti TJ, Savolainen K, Helander HM; et al. (2000). "In mouse alpha -methylacyl-CoA racemase, the same gene product is simultaneously located in mitochondria and peroxisomes". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (27): 20887–95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002067200. PMID 10770938.
  • Amery L, Fransen M, De Nys K; et al. (2001). "Mitochondrial and peroxisomal targeting of 2-methylacyl-CoA racemase in humans". J. Lipid Res. 41 (11): 1752–9. PMID 11060344.
  • Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788–95. PMID 11076863.
  • Rubin MA, Zhou M, Dhanasekaran SM; et al. (2002). "alpha-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase as a tissue biomarker for prostate cancer". JAMA. 287 (13): 1662–70. PMID 11926890.
  • Luo J, Zha S, Gage WR; et al. (2002). "Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a new molecular marker for prostate cancer". Cancer Res. 62 (8): 2220–6. PMID 11956072.
  • Zhou M, Chinnaiyan AM, Kleer CG; et al. (2002). "Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: a novel tumor marker over-expressed in several human cancers and their precursor lesions". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 26 (7): 926–31. PMID 12131161.
  • Kuefer R, Varambally S, Zhou M; et al. (2002). "alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: expression levels of this novel cancer biomarker depend on tumor differentiation". Am. J. Pathol. 161 (3): 841–8. PMID 12213712.
  • Varambally S, Dhanasekaran SM, Zhou M; et al. (2002). "The polycomb group protein EZH2 is involved in progression of prostate cancer". Nature. 419 (6907): 624–9. doi:10.1038/nature01075. PMID 12374981.
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH; et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.
  • Leav I, McNeal JE, Ho SM, Jiang Z (2003). "Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504S) expression in evolving carcinomas within benign prostatic hyperplasia and in cancers of the transition zone". Hum. Pathol. 34 (3): 228–33. doi:10.1053/hupa.2003.42. PMID 12673556.
  • Shen-Ong GL, Feng Y, Troyer DA (2003). "Expression profiling identifies a novel alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase exon with fumarate hydratase homology". Cancer Res. 63 (12): 3296–301. PMID 12810662.
  • Zha S, Ferdinandusse S, Denis S; et al. (2004). "Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase as an androgen-independent growth modifier in prostate cancer". Cancer Res. 63 (21): 7365–76. PMID 14612535.
  • Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T; et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.