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The chemical structure of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline

2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, abbreviated 2AP, with the IUPAC name 1-(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrol-5-yl)ethanone, is an aroma compound and flavor that gives white bread, jasmine rice and basmati rice, the spice pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius), and bread flowers (Vallaris glabra) their typical smell [1]. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and its structural homolog 6-acetyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine of similar smell can be formed by Maillard reactions during heating of food such as in baked bread. Both compounds have odor thresholds below 0.06 ng/l.[2]


2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline is a substituted pyrroline and a cyclic imine as well as a ketone.

See also


  1. S. Wongpornchai, T. Sriseadka, S. Choonvisase (2003). "Identification and quantitation of the rice aroma compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, in bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze)". J. Agric. Food. Chem. 51 (2): 457–462. doi:10.1021/jf025856x. PMID 12517110.
  2. T. J. Harrison, G. R. Dake (2005). "An expeditious, high-yielding construction of the food aroma compounds 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline". J. Org. Chem. 70 (26): 10872–10874. doi:10.1021/jo051940a. PMID 16356012.