Traumatic brain injury epidemiology and demographics
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Epidemiology and Demographics
The incidence of TBI varies by age, gender, region and other factors. For example, the yearly incidence in the U.S. is estimated to be about 180 to 250 per 100,000 people, but the incidence is thought to be higher in Europe and South Africa.
The age groups most at risk for TBI are children ages five to nine and adults over age 80. Children age five and younger are also at high risk for TBI. Men suffer twice as many TBIs as women do and have a four fold risk of fatal head injury. Males also account for two thirds of childhood and adolescent head trauma patients.
Each year in the United States:
- About two million people suffer a TBI
- About 500,000 people are hospitalized for TBI
- Approximately 270,000 people experience a moderate or severe TBI
- Approximately 60,000 new cases of epilepsy occur as a result of head trauma
- Approximately 50,000 people die from head injury
- Approximately 80,000 of these survivors live with chronic disabilities as a result of the injury.
- D'Ambrosio R, Perucca E (2004). "Epilepsy After Head Injury". Current Opinion in Neurology. 17 (6): 731–735. PMID 15542983.
- Rao V, Lyketsos C (2000). "Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Traumatic Brain Injury". Psychosomatics. 41 (2): 95–103. PMID 10749946.
Necajauskaite, O (2005). "The prevalence, course and clinical features of post-concussion syndrome in children" (PDF). Medicina (Kaunas). 41 (6): 457–464. PMID 15998982. Retrieved 2008-02-29. Unknown parameter