Swine vesicular disease
|Swine vesicular disease virus|
Swine vesicular disease (SVD) is an acute, contagious viral disease of swine caused by the swine vesicular disease virus, an enterovirus. It is characterized by fever and vesicles with subsequent ulcers in the mouth and on the snout, feet, and teats. The pathogen is relatively resistant to heat, and can persist for a long time in salted, dried, and smoked meat products.
The disease first occurred in Italy, and has been recognized in Hong Kong, Japan, and a number of European countries. In the 1990s outbreaks were reported in Italy, Spain, and Portugal.
The disease can be introduced into a herd by feeding garbage containing infected meat scraps, by bringing in infected animals, or by direct contact with infected feces (such as in an improperly cleaned truck). After the initial infection, the disease spreads through contact of susceptible pigs with infected pigs and infected feces.
- Vesicles in the mouth and on the snout and feet
- Lameness and an unsteady gait, shivering and jerking–type leg movements
- Ruptured vesicles can cause ulcers on limbs and feet, and foot pads may be loosened. Young animals are more severely affected. Recovery often occurs within a week. There is no mortality with SVD.
Prevention and control
There is no vaccine for SVD. Prevention measures are similar to those for foot-and-mouth disease: controlling animals imported from infected areas, and sanitary disposal of garbage from international aircraft and ships, and thorough cooking of garbage. Infected animals should be placed in strict quarantine. Eradication measures for the disease include quarantining infected areas, depopulation and disposal of infected and contact pigs, and cleaning and disinfecting contaminated premises.
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