Rosemary

Jump to: navigation, search
Rosemary
Rosemary in flower
Rosemary in flower
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Rosmarinus
Species: R. officinalis
Binomial name
Rosmarinus officinalis
L.
</tr>
Rosemary (dried)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 190 kcal   800 kJ
Carbohydrates     64.1 g
- Sugars  0.0 g
- Dietary fiber  42.6 g  
Fat15.2 g
Protein 4.9 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.5 mg  38%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.4 mg  27%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  1.0 mg  7%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.0 mg 0%
Vitamin B6  1.7 mg131%
Folate (Vit. B9)  307 μg 77%
Vitamin C  61.2 mg102%
Calcium  1280.0 mg128%
Iron  29.2 mg234%
Magnesium  220.0 mg59% 
Phosphorus  70.0 mg10%
Potassium  955 mg  20%
Zinc  3.2 mg32%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database</td></tr></table>
Commons-logo.svg
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikispecies-logo.svg
Wikispecies has information related to:

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves. It is native to the Mediterranean region. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which also includes many other herbs. Forms range from upright to trailing; the upright forms can reach 1.5 m tall, rarely 2 m. The leaves are evergreen, 2-4 cm long and 2-5 mm broad, green above, and white below with dense short woolly hairs. The flowers are variable in color, being white, pink, purple, or blue.

The name rosemary has nothing to do with the rose or the name Mary, but derives from the Latin name rosmarinus, which literally means "dew of the sea", though some think this too may be derived from an earlier name.

Cultivation and uses

The fresh and dried leaves are used frequently in traditional Mediterranean cuisine as a herb; they have a bitter, astringent taste, which complements oily foods, such as lamb and oily fish. A tisane can also be made from them. They are extensively used in cooking, and when burned give off a distinct mustard smell, as well as a smell similar to that of burning which can be used to flavor foods while barbecueing.

Rosemary, in the dried form, is extremely high in iron, calcium, and Vitamin B6. It is in fact more nutrient rich in its dry form than fresh rosemary across the board.[1]

Since it is attractive and tolerates some degree of drought, it is also used in landscaping, especially in areas having a Mediterranean climate. It can in fact die in over-watered soil, but is otherwise quite easy to grow for beginner gardeners. It is very pest-resistant.

Rosemary is easily pruned into shapes and has been used for topiary. When grown in pots, it is best kept trimmed to stop it getting too straggly and unsightly, though when grown in a garden, rosemary can grow quite large and still be attractive. It can be propagated from an existing plant by clipping a shoot 10-15 cm long, stripping a few leaves from the bottom, and planting it directly into soil.

Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use. The following are frequently sold:

  • Albus — white flowers
  • Arp — leaves light green, lemon-scented
  • Aureus — leaves speckled yellow
  • Benenden Blue — leaves narrow, dark green
  • Blue Boy — dwarf, small leaves
  • Golden Rain — leaves green, with yellow streaks
  • Irene — lax, trailing
  • Lockwood de Forest — procumbent selection from Tuscan Blue
  • Ken Taylor — shrubby
  • Majorica Pink — pink flowers
  • Miss Jessop's Upright — tall, erect
  • Pinkie — pink flowers
  • Prostratus
  • Pyramidalis (a.k.a Erectus) — pale blue flowers
  • Roseus — pink flowers
  • Salem  — pale blue flowers, cold hardy similar to Arp
  • Severn Sea — spreading, low-growing, with arching branches; flowers deep violet
  • Tuscan Blue — upright

Rosemary is a useful food preservative, according to research published in 1987 by Rutgers University, New Jersey[citation needed]. Researchers at Rutgers patented a chemical derived from rosemary that compares favorably with BHA and BHT in its preservative properties.

Rosemary can be added as an unusual extra flavoring in lemonade.

Medicinal uses

Hungary water was first invented for a Queen of Hungary to "renovate vitality of paralysed limbs". It was used externally and prepared by mixing 180g of fresh rosemary tops in full flower into a liter of spirits of wine. Leave to stand for four days then distill. It is also supposed to work as a remedy against gout if rubbed vigorously on hands and feet.[2]

Rosemary has a very old reputation for improving memory, and has been used as a symbol for remembrance (during weddings, war commemorations and funerals) in Europe, probably as a result of this reputation. Mourners would throw it into graves as a symbol of remembrance for the dead. In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Ophelia says, "There's rosemary, that's for remembrance". One modern study lends some credence to this reputation. When the smell of rosemary was pumped into cubicles where people were working, those people showed improved memory, though with slower recall.[3]

Don Quixote (Chapter XVII, 1st volume) mixes it in his recipe of the miraculous balm of Fierabras with revolting results.

Health Precautions: In some cases, rosemary can cause autoimmune diseases. Rosemary in culinary or therapeutic doses is generally safe, however precaution is necessary for those displaying allergic reaction, or those prone to epileptic seizure. Rosemary essential oil is a powerful convulsant; if applied to the skin, it may cause seizures in otherwise healthy adults or children.[4] Rosemary essential oil is potentially toxic if ingested. Large quantities of rosemary leaves can cause adverse reactions, such as coma, spasm, vomiting, and pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs) that can be fatal. Avoid consuming large quantities of rosemary if pregnant or breastfeeding.[5]

Trivia

Along with Parsley, Sage, and Thyme Rosemary is named in the song Scarborough Fair

References

Books

  • Calabrese, V., Scapagnini, G., Catalano, C., Dinotta, F., Geraci, D., & Morganti, P. (2000). Biochemical studies of a natural antioxidant isolated from rosemary and its application in cosmetic dermatology. International Journal of Tissue Reactions. 22 (1): 5-13.
  • Huang, M. T., Ho, C. T., Wang, Z. Y., Ferraro, T., Lou, Y. R., Stauber, K., Ma, W., Georgiadis, C., Laskin, J. D., & Conney, A. H. (1994). Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid. Cancer Res. 54(3):701-8.

Websites

  1. Nutrition Facts - Rosemary
  2. Rosemary at SuperbHerbs.net
  3. Moss M, et al. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Int J Neurosci. 2003 Jan;113(1):15-38.
  4. PubMed entry
  5. Article at HealthComm

External links

ar:حصالبان

bg:Розмарин ca:Romer cs:Rozmarýna lékařská da:Rosmarin de:Rosmarin el:Δενδρολίβανοeo:Oficina rosmareno fa:اکلیل کوهیgl:Romeu hr:Ružmarin it:Rosmarinus officinalis he:רוזמרין hu:Rozmaring nl:Rozemarijnno:Rosmarin nrm:Romathînsl:Rožmarin fi:Rosmariini sv:Rosmarin


Linked-in.jpg