Pathophysiology template

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Charmaine Patel, M.D. [2]

Introduction to the Pathophysiology Page

  • The page name should be "(Disease name) pathophysiology", with only the first letter of the title capitalized.
  • Goal: to explain the biological mechanisms underlying the disease state. To provide a description of the pathophysiology at a cellular and molecular level, the pathophysiology at a gross and functional level, and the causative factor in the disease process. The page can also include a description of the genetic abnormalities, embryological and developmental abnormalities, pathogenesis, and pathology images.
  • As with all microchapter pages linking to the main page, at the top of the edit box put {{CMG}}, your name template, and the microchapter navigation template you created at the beginning.
  • Remember to follow the same format and capitalization of letters as outlined in the template below.
  • You should include the name of the disease in the first sentence of every subsection.
  • Remember to create links within Wikidoc by placing [[square brackets]] around key words which you want to link to other pages. Make sure you makes your links as specific as possible. For example if a sentence contained the phrase anterior spinal artery syndrome, the link should be to anterior spinal artery syndrome not anterior or artery or syndrome. For more information on how to create links click here.


  • The overview section should include the disease name in the first sentence.
  • The goal is to summarize the pathophysiology page in several sentences. This section can be the same as the pathophysiology segment on the overview page.
  • To see an example of an overview section on a symptoms page, click here.


  • The overview is highly dependent on the individual disease pathophysiology. There is no specific template preference for the first sentence.
  • Template Sentences:
Template Sentence 1: [Pathogen name] is usually transmitted via the [transmission route] route to the human host.
Template Sentence 2: Following transmission/ingestion, the [pathogen] uses the [entry site] to invade the [cell name] cell.
Template Sentence 3: On gross pathology, [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3] are characteristic findings of [disease name].
Template Sentence 4: On microscopic histopathological analysis, [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3] are characteristic findings of [disease name].
Template Sentence 5: [Disease name] is transmitted in [mode of genetic transmission] pattern.
Template Sentence 6: [Disease/malignancy name] arises from [cell name]s, which are [cell type] cells that are normally involved in [function of cells].
Template Sentence 7: Development of [disease name] is the result from multiple genetic mutations.
Template Sentence 8: Genes involved in the pathogenesis of [disease name] include [gene1], [gene2], and [gene3].
Template Sentence 9: The progression to [disease name] usually involves the [molecular pathway].
Template Sentence 10: The pathophysiology of [disease name] depends on the histological subtype.
  • Examples:
Example 1: Spores of C. difficile are transmitted via the fecal-oral route to the human host.
Example 2: Following ingestion, the acid-resistant spores of C. difficile are able to survive the human gastric acidity.
Example 3: Following ingestion, Shigella spp. uses the M cells of the GI tract to invade the epithelial cells of the large intestine.
Example 4: Following transcytosis and macrophage apoptosis, Shigella avoids extracellular exposure and spreads intercellularly using actin polymerization processes (rocket propulsion).
Example 5: On gross pathology, hyperemia with development of ulcers and edema are characteristic findings of shigellosis.
Example 6: On microscopic histopathological analysis, infiltration of PMN and inflammatory pseudomembrane formation are characteristic findings of shigellosis.
Example 7: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is transmitted in an X-linked recessive pattern.
Example 8: Malignant melanoma arises from the epidermal melanocytes, which are neural crest cells normally involved in the synthesis of melanin (a brown pigment with photoprotective properties).
Example 9: Development of melanoma is the result of multiple genetic mutations.
Example 10: Genes involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma include p53, RB, ARF, and BRAF.
Example 11: The progression to melanoma usually involves the serine-threonine kinases of the MAPK/ERK pathway (mitogen-activated protein kinase) following mutation of either the N-RAS or BRAF oncogene.
Example 12: The pathophysiology of gallbladder cancer depends on the histological subtype.


  • Pathogenesis is the mechanism by which a certain factor causes disease (pathos = disease, genesis = development). The term can also be used to describe the development of the disease, whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent. It can also be used to describe whether the disease causes inflammation, malignancy,necrosis etc.
  • For an example of a pathogenesis section within a pathophysiology page, click here


  • Some diseases are genetic, and have particular inheritance patterns, and express different phenotypes.
  • The effect that genetics may have on the pathophysiology of a disease can be described in this section.

Associated Conditions

  • Conditions associated with the disease can be detailed in this section.
  • For an example of an associated conditions sub-section of pathophysiology, click here.

Gross Pathology

  • Gross pathology refers to macroscopic or larger scale manifestations of disease in organs, tissues and body cavities. The term is commonly used by pathologist to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.
  • This section is a good place to include pictures. Search for copyleft images on The Pathology Wiki [3] and Ask Dr. Wiki [4].
  • For an example of this section, click here.

Microscopic Pathology

  • Microscopic pathology is the disease process as it occurs at the microscopic level.
  • This section is a good place to include pictures. Search for copyleft images on The Pathology Wiki [5] and Ask Dr. Wiki [6].
  • For an example of this section, click here.


  • References should be cited for the material that you have put on your page. Type in {{reflist|2}}.This will generate your references in small font, in two columns, with links to the original article and abstract.
  • For information on how to add references into your page, click here.