- Acid-base extraction
- Acid-base reaction
- Acid dissociation constant
- Acidity function
- Buffer solutions
- Proton affinity
- Self-ionization of water
As the name suggests, a non-nucleophilic base is an organic base that is a very strong base but at the same time a poor nucleophile. In thermodynamic reaction control an electron donor molecule acts as a nucleophile, in kinetic reaction control the electron donor abstracts a proton (or rather the proton gets harpooned, hence its alternative name harpoon base). For this reason these bases are said to be involved in kinetic deprotonation.
Non-nucleophilic bases include:
- Lithium diisopropylamide
- Silicon-based amides, such as sodium and potassium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (NaHMDS and KHMDS respectively)
- Lithium tetramethylpiperidide
- Sodium tert-butoxide
The following diagram shows how the hindered base, lithium diisopropylamide, is used to form to deprotonate an ester to give the enolate in the Claisen ester condensation, instead of undergoing a nucleophilic substitution.
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