Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup
In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups have led some researchers to trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe.
Known haplogroups are assigned the following letter codes: A, B, C, CZ, D, E, F, G, H, pre-HV, HV, I, J, pre-JT, JT, K, L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, UK, V, W, X, Y, and Z.
The woman who is at the root of all these groups is the most recent common matrilineal (female-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. She is commonly called Mitochondrial Eve.
Precise evolutionary relationships between human mitochondrial haplogroups are subject to academic debate.
L1 and its descendants
Descendants of haplogroup L3
Descendants of haplogroup M*
Descendants of haplogroup N*
Descendants of haplogroup R
For a graphical depiction of haplogroup branching, see Vincent Macaulay's mtDNA haplogroup skeleton.
For information on the mutations which characterize each haplogroup, see the table of mtDNA haplogroup motifs.
- Human mitochondrial genetics
- Cambridge Reference Sequence
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- * (haplogroup)
- Molecular phylogeny
- Genetic genealogy
- Genealogical DNA test
- Hypervariable region
- ^ Mitochondrial haplogroup skeleton, by Vincent Macaulay
- ^ Mitochondrial haplogroup motifs, by Vincent Macaulay
- mtDNA .pdf map
- Map of macro-haplogroup N by John S. Walden
- Indian maternal gene pool, Journal of Human Genetics
- The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape, American Journal of Human Genetics
- Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?, American Journal of Human Genetics
- The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event, American Journal of Human Geneticsca:Haplogrups mitocondrials humans