Halogenation is a chemical reaction that incorporates a halogen atom into a molecule. More specific descriptions exist that specify the type of halogen: fluorination, chlorination, bromination, and iodination.
In a Markovnikov addition reaction, a halogen like bromine is reacted with an alkene which causes the π-bond to break forming an haloalkane. This makes the hydrocarbon more reactive and bromine as it turns out, is a good leaving group in further chemical reactions such as nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reactions and elimination reactions
Several main types of halogenation exist, including:
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