Gut-associated lymphoid tissue
The digestive tract's immune system is often referred to as gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and works to protect the body from invasion. GALT is an example of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
About 70% of the body's immune system is found in the digestive tract. The GALT is made up of several types of lymphoid tissue that produce and store immune cells that carry out attacks and defend against pathogens.
Lymphoid tissue in the gut is comprised of the following :
- Tonsils (Waldeyer's ring)
- Adenoids (Pharyngeal tonsils)
- Peyer's patches
- Lymphoid aggregates in the appendix and large intestine
- Lymphoid tissue accumulating with age in the stomach
- Small lymphoid aggregates in the oesophagus
- Diffusely distributed lymphoid cells and plasma cells in the lamina propria of the gut
- Histology at Boston University 12502loa - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal: colon, taenia coli"
- Histology at Boston University 11102loa - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal: esophageal/stomach junction"
Anatomy of torso, digestive system: Gastrointestinal tract
|Upper GI: to stomach||Mouth • Pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx) • Esophagus • Crop|
|Upper GI: stomach||rugae - gastric pits - cardia/gland - fundus/gland - pylorus/gland - pyloric antrum - pyloric canal - greater curvature - lesser curvature - angular incisure|
|Lower GI: intestines||Small intestine: Duodenum (Suspensory muscle, Major duodenal papilla, Minor duodenal papilla) • Duodenojejunal flexure • Jejunum • Ileum • continuous (intestinal villus, crypts of Lieberkühn, circular folds) Large intestine: Cecum • Colon (ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon) • continuous (taenia coli, haustra, epiploic appendix)|
|Lower GI: termination||Rectum: Houston valve • rectal ampulla • pectinate line Anus: Sphincter ani internus muscle • Sphincter ani externus muscle|
|Lower GI: lymph||GALT: Peyer's patches (M cells)|
Immune system: Lymphatic system (Lymph, Lymphocytes)
|Primary||Bone marrow – Thymus (Hassall's corpuscles)|
|Hilum – Trabeculae Trabecular arteries – Trabecular veins|
|Secondary: Lymph nodes|
(process extracellular fluid)
|Afferent lymph vessels - Cortical sinuses - Medullary sinuses - Efferent lymph vessels Lymph node trabeculae|
|GALT – Peyer's patches – Germinal center|
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