|IUPAC name||oxoethanoic acid|
|Other names||formylformic acid|
|Molar mass||74.04 g mol-1|
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Other synonyms are formylformic acid and oxoethanoic acid. The compound is an aldehyde and a carboxylic acid. Alkyl esters of glyoxylic acid are called alkyl glyoxylic acids. The compound is formed by organic oxidation of glycolic acid or ozonolysis of maleic acid. Glyoxylic acid is a liquid with a melting point of -93 °C and a boiling point of 111 °C. It is available commercially as a monohydrate or as a solution in water.
When the carboxyl group of glyoxylic acid loses a proton it turns into glyoxylate. This compound is an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle, which enables organisms, such as bacteria,  fungi, and plants  to convert fatty acids into carbohydrates. Glyoxylate is the byproduct of the amidation process in biosynthesis of several amidated peptides.
- Holms WH (1987). "Control of flux through the citric acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass in Escherichia coli". Biochem Soc Symp. 54: 17–31. PMID 3332993.
- Escher CL, Widmer F (1997). "Lipid mobilization and gluconeogenesis in plants: do glyoxylate cycle enzyme activities constitute a real cycle? A hypothesis". Biol Chem. 378: 803–813. PMID 9377475.