Acute stress disorder epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Simrat Sarai, M.D. [2]

Overview

The point prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) following trauma exposure has been estimated at between 5 and 20 percent. Females are more commonly affected with acute stress disorder than males.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Epidemiology and Demographics

The point prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) following trauma exposure has been estimated at between 5 and 20 percent. According to the DSM-5, the frequency with which acute stress disorder develops in individuals exposed to traumatic events depends on the following features:

  • The context in which the event is assessed
  • The nature of the event
  • Within and outside the United States, acute stress disorder tends to occur at the following rates:[1][2][3][4][5][7]
    • 6-12% of industrial accidents
    • 10% of severe burns
    • 13-21% of motor vehicle accidents
    • 14% of mild traumatic brain injuries
    • 19% of assaults
    • 20-50% of cases follow interpersonal traumatic events (eg, assault, rape, and witnessing a mass shooting)

Gender

  • Females are more commonly affected with acute stress disorder than males.[8]
  • Acute stress disorder is more prevalent among females than among males. It is hypothesized that sex-linked neurobiological differences in stress response may contribute to females’ increased risk for acute stress disorder. The increased risk for the acute stress disorder in females may be attributable in part to a greater likelihood of exposure to the traumatic events with a high conditional risk for acute stress disorder, such as rape and other interpersonal violence (domestic violence etc.).[9]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Holeva, Vassiliki; Tarrier, Nicholas; Wells, Adrian (2001). "Prevalence and predictors of acute stress disorder and PTSD following road traffic accidents: Thought control strategies and social support". Behavior Therapy. 32 (1): 65–83. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(01)80044-7. ISSN 0005-7894.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Harvey AG, Bryant RA (1998). "The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective evaluation of motor vehicle accident survivors". J Consult Clin Psychol. 66 (3): 507–12. PMID 9642889.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Brewin CR, Andrews B, Rose S, Kirk M (1999). "Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in victims of violent crime". Am J Psychiatry. 156 (3): 360–6. doi:10.1176/ajp.156.3.360. PMID 10080549.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Creamer, Mark; Manning, Carolyn (1998). "Acute Stress Disorder Following an Industrial Accident". Australian Psychologist. 33 (2): 125–129. doi:10.1080/00050069808257393. ISSN 0005-0067.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Harvey AG, Bryant RA (1999). "Acute stress disorder across trauma populations". J Nerv Ment Dis. 187 (7): 443–6. PMID 10426466.
  6. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Print.
  7. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Print.
  8. Andreano JM, Cahill L (2009). "Sex influences on the neurobiology of learning and memory". Learn Mem. 16 (4): 248–66. doi:10.1101/lm.918309. PMID 19318467.
  9. Bryant RA, Felmingham KL, Silove D, Creamer M, O'Donnell M, McFarlane AC (2011). "The association between menstrual cycle and traumatic memories". J Affect Disord. 131 (1–3): 398–401. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.10.049. PMID 21093927.



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