|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. ALCAR has been claimed to be superior to normal L-carnitine in terms of bioavailability. However, at least one study has suggested that the acetylated form may have a lower oral bioavailability.
It is claimed that ALCAR provides several benefits. Advocates of acetyl-L-carnitine market it as a life extension supplement. There may be some benefit in cases of end stage renal disease or peripheral arterial disease. When supplemented alongside Lipoic acid, ALCAR appears to reverse some of the damage to mitochondria associated with aging.
The percentage of L-carnitine that is absorbed when taken via oral supplementation is much lower than that from food sources. In one particular study, it was shown that approximately 20% of orally supplemented L-carnitine is absorbed, with a bioavailability of roughly 15%, as compared to a bioavailability of between %60 and %75 when absorbed from food.
ALCAR supplementation has been shown to be neuroprotective in instances of cerebral ischemia, periphiral nerve injury, and to be beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in animals.
ALCAR supplementation has also been shown to reverse syptoms associated with mental decline in the eldery.
- ↑ Eder, K.; et Al. (2005). "Free and total carnitine concentrations in pig plasma after oral ingestion of various L-carnitine compounds". Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 3-9. Retrieved on 2007-3-13.
- ↑ Brass, Eric P.; William R. Hiatt (1998). "The Role of Carnitine and Carnitine Supplementation During Exercise in Man and in Individuals with Special Needs". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17 (3): 207-215. Retrieved on 2007-3-13.
- ↑ Ames, B. N.; J. Liu (2005). "Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetylcarnitine". Ann N Y Acad Sci 1033 (1): 108-16. Retrieved on 2007-3-13.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 L-Carnitine. PRD Health. Thompson Healthcare. Retrieved on 2007-3-13.
- ↑ Zanelli, Santina A.; Nina J. Solenski, Robert E. Rosenthal, and Gart Fiskum (2005). "Mechanisms of ischemic neuroprotection by acetyl-L-carnitine". Ann N Y Acad Sci 1053: 153-161. Retrieved on 2007-3-14.
- ↑ Wilsona, Andrew; Andrew Harta, Thomas Brännströmf, Mikael Wiberga, and Giorgio Terenghi (2007). "Delayed acetyl-l-carnitine administration and its effect on sensory neuronal rescue after peripheral nerve injurystar, open". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 60 (2). Retrieved on 2007-3-14.
- ↑ Beal, Flint (2003). "Bioenergetic approaches for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease". Ann Neurol 53 (S3): S39-S48. Retrieved on 2007-3-14.
- ↑ Salvioli, G; Neri, M (1994). "L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly". Drugs Exp Clin Res 20 (4): 169-76. Retrieved on 2007-3-14.
- ↑ Hafiz, Mohmmad Abdul; Vittorio Calabrese, Menotti Calvani, and D. Allan Butterfield (2006). "Acetyl-L-carnitine-induced up-regulation of heat shock proteins protects cortical neurons against amyloid-beta peptide 1-42-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: Implications for Alzheimer's disease". J Neurosci Res 84 (2): 398 - 408. Retrieved on 2007-3-14.
- Jane Higdon, "L-Carnitine", Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute
- "Carnitine (L-carnitine)", University of Maryland Medical Center
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