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{{CMG}}; '''Associate Editor-In-Chief:''' [[Varun Kumar]], M.B.B.S.; [[Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan]], M.B.B.S.
 
{{CMG}}; '''Associate Editor-In-Chief:''' [[Varun Kumar]], M.B.B.S.; [[Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan]], M.B.B.S.
  
==Epidemiology and Demographics==
+
==Overview==  
Tuberculous pericarditis is found in approximately 1-2% of patients with [[pulmonary tuberculosis]] It is the most common cause of pericarditis in Africa and other developing countries where TB is a major public health problem<ref>Mayosi BM, Volmink JA, Commerford PJ. Pericardial disease: an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment. In: Yusuf S, Cairns JA, Camm AJ, Fallen BJ, eds. Evidence-Based Cardiology. 2nd ed. London: BMJ Books; 2003: 735–748.</ref>. The incidence is increasing rapidly in the presence of [[HIV]]<ref name="pmid1967676">{{cite journal| author=Cegielski JP, Ramiya K, Lallinger GJ, Mtulia IA, Mbaga IM| title=Pericardial disease and human immunodeficiency virus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. | journal=Lancet | year= 1990 | volume= 335 | issue= 8683 | pages= 209-12 | pmid=1967676 | doi= | pmc= | url= }} </ref>.
 
 
 
In a study in Western Cape Province of South Africa, tuberculous pericarditis was noted in 69.5% of patients who were referred for diagnostic [[pericardiocentesis]]. It should noted that one half of the patients were infected with [[HIV]]<ref name="pmid15962545">{{cite journal| author=Reuter H, Burgess LJ, Doubell AF| title=Epidemiology of pericardial effusions at a large academic hospital in South Africa. | journal=Epidemiol Infect | year= 2005 | volume= 133 | issue= 3 | pages= 393-9 | pmid=15962545 | doi= | pmc=PMC2870262 | url= }} </ref>. In contrast, the incidence of tuberculous pericarditis is 4% in developed countries<ref name="pmid3351140">{{cite journal| author=Sagristà-Sauleda J, Permanyer-Miralda G, Soler-Soler J| title=Tuberculous pericarditis: ten year experience with a prospective protocol for diagnosis and treatment. | journal=J Am Coll Cardiol | year= 1988 | volume= 11 | issue= 4 | pages= 724-8 | pmid=3351140 | doi= | pmc= | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=3351140  }} </ref>.
 
  
 
==Epidemiology and Demographics==
 
==Epidemiology and Demographics==
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===Developed Countries===
 
===Developed Countries===
After the resurgence of TB in the mid-1980s, the number of case counts steadily increased, peaking in 1992. Since the 1992 TB resurgence peak in the United States, the number of TB cases reported has decreased annually. The year 2014 marked the twenty-second year of decline in the total number of TB cases reported in the United States since the peak of the resurgence. In 2014, a total of 9,421 cases were reported from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). This represented a decline of 1.5% from 2013. The number of cases per 100,000 in 2013 and 2014 has been stable at a rate of 3.0.<ref name="CDC2">{{Cite web | title = WHO 2016 TB Report | url =http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250441/1/9789241565394-eng.pdf?ua=1}}</ref>   [[Image:US_trend.png|thumb|center|400 px|''Image 1'' - Reported TB Cases United States, 1982–2014<SMALL><SMALL>''[http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends.htm%7D - Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)]''<ref name="CDC2" /></SMALL></SMALL>|link=https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/File:US_trend.png]][[Image:US2014.png|thumb|center|400 px|''Image 2'' - TB Case Rates,* United States, 2014<SMALL><SMALL>''[https://http//www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends.htm%7D - Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)]''<ref name="CDC2" /></SMALL></SMALL>|link=https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/File:US2014.png]]<br />
+
 
 +
* After the resurgence of TB in the mid-1980s, the number of case counts steadily increased, peaking in 1992.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
* Since the 1992 TB resurgence peak in the United States, the number of TB cases reported has decreased annually.    
 +
* The year 2014 marked the twenty-second year of decline in the total number of TB cases reported in the United States since the peak of the resurgence.    
 +
* In 2014, a total of 9,421 cases were reported from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC).    
 +
* This represented a decline of 1.5% from 2013.    
 +
* The number of cases per 100,000 in 2013 and 2014 has been stable at a rate of 3.0.     
 +
 
 +
[[Image:US_trend.png|thumb|center|400 px|''Image 1'' - Reported TB Cases United States, 1982–2014<SMALL><SMALL>''[http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends.htm%7D - Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)]''<ref name="CDC2" /></SMALL></SMALL>|link=https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/File:US_trend.png]][[Image:US2014.png|thumb|center|400 px|''Image 2'' - TB Case Rates,* United States, 2014<SMALL><SMALL>''[https://http//www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends.htm%7D - Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)]''<ref name="CDC2" /></SMALL></SMALL>|link=https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/File:US2014.png]]<br />
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
{{reflist|2}}

Revision as of 17:37, 4 December 2019

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S.

Overview

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate

  • In [year], the incidence of [disease name] is approximately [number range] per 100,000 individuals with a case-fatality rate/mortality rate of [number range]%.
  • The case-fatality rate/mortality rate of [disease name] is approximately [number range].

Age

  • Patients of all age groups may develop tuberculous pericarditis.
  • The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis increases with age.
  • Tuberculous pericarditis commonly affects elderly

Race

  • Tuberculous pericarditis usually affects individuals of the black race.

Gender

  • Men are more commonly affected by tuberculous pericarditis than female.

Region

  • Since the prevalence of tuberculous pericarditis may follow tuberculosis prevalence, The majority of tuberculous pericarditis cases are reported in:
    • South Africa
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in South Africa is 834 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in South Africa is 46 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
    • Indonesia
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in Indonesia is 395 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Indonesia is 40 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
    • Nigeria
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in Nigeria is 322 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Nigeria is 99 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
    • Pakistan
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is 270 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Pakistan is 23 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
    • India
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in India is 217 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in India is 36 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
    • China
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in China is 67 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in China is 2.6 per 100,000 of the overall population.[3]

Developed Countries

  • After the resurgence of TB in the mid-1980s, the number of case counts steadily increased, peaking in 1992.[3]
  • Since the 1992 TB resurgence peak in the United States, the number of TB cases reported has decreased annually.
  • The year 2014 marked the twenty-second year of decline in the total number of TB cases reported in the United States since the peak of the resurgence.
  • In 2014, a total of 9,421 cases were reported from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC).
  • This represented a decline of 1.5% from 2013.
  • The number of cases per 100,000 in 2013 and 2014 has been stable at a rate of 3.0.
Image 1 - Reported TB Cases United States, 1982–2014- Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)[3]
Image 2 - TB Case Rates,* United States, 2014- Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)[3]


References

  1. Fowler NO (1991). "Tuberculous pericarditis". JAMA. 266 (1): 99–103. PMID 2046135.
  2. Larrieu AJ, Tyers GF, Williams EH, Derrick JR (1980). "Recent experience with tuberculous pericarditis". Ann Thorac Surg. 29 (5): 464–8. PMID 7377888.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 "WHO 2016 TB Report" (PDF).

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