Difference between revisions of "Tuberculous pericarditis epidemiology and demographics"

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==Epidemiology and Demographics==
 
==Epidemiology and Demographics==
Tuberculous pericarditis is found in approximately 1-2% of patients with [[pulmonary tuberculosis]]<ref name="pmid2046135">{{cite journal| author=Fowler NO| title=Tuberculous pericarditis. | journal=JAMA | year= 1991 | volume= 266 | issue= 1 | pages= 99-103 | pmid=2046135 | doi= | pmc= | url= }} </ref><ref name="pmid7377888">{{cite journal| author=Larrieu AJ, Tyers GF, Williams EH, Derrick JR| title=Recent experience with tuberculous pericarditis. | journal=Ann Thorac Surg | year= 1980 | volume= 29 | issue= 5 | pages= 464-8 | pmid=7377888 | doi= | pmc= | url= }} </ref>. It is the most common cause of pericarditis in Africa and other developing countries where TB is a major public health problem<ref>Mayosi BM, Volmink JA, Commerford PJ. Pericardial disease: an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment. In: Yusuf S, Cairns JA, Camm AJ, Fallen BJ, eds. Evidence-Based Cardiology. 2nd ed. London: BMJ Books; 2003: 735–748.</ref>. The incidence is increasing rapidly in the presence of [[HIV]]<ref name="pmid1967676">{{cite journal| author=Cegielski JP, Ramiya K, Lallinger GJ, Mtulia IA, Mbaga IM| title=Pericardial disease and human immunodeficiency virus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. | journal=Lancet | year= 1990 | volume= 335 | issue= 8683 | pages= 209-12 | pmid=1967676 | doi= | pmc= | url= }} </ref>.  
+
Tuberculous pericarditis is found in approximately 1-2% of patients with [[pulmonary tuberculosis]] It is the most common cause of pericarditis in Africa and other developing countries where TB is a major public health problem<ref>Mayosi BM, Volmink JA, Commerford PJ. Pericardial disease: an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment. In: Yusuf S, Cairns JA, Camm AJ, Fallen BJ, eds. Evidence-Based Cardiology. 2nd ed. London: BMJ Books; 2003: 735–748.</ref>. The incidence is increasing rapidly in the presence of [[HIV]]<ref name="pmid1967676">{{cite journal| author=Cegielski JP, Ramiya K, Lallinger GJ, Mtulia IA, Mbaga IM| title=Pericardial disease and human immunodeficiency virus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. | journal=Lancet | year= 1990 | volume= 335 | issue= 8683 | pages= 209-12 | pmid=1967676 | doi= | pmc= | url= }} </ref>.  
  
 
In a study in Western Cape Province of South Africa, tuberculous pericarditis was noted in 69.5% of patients who were referred for diagnostic [[pericardiocentesis]]. It should noted that one half of the patients were infected with [[HIV]]<ref name="pmid15962545">{{cite journal| author=Reuter H, Burgess LJ, Doubell AF| title=Epidemiology of pericardial effusions at a large academic hospital in South Africa. | journal=Epidemiol Infect | year= 2005 | volume= 133 | issue= 3 | pages= 393-9 | pmid=15962545 | doi= | pmc=PMC2870262 | url= }} </ref>. In contrast, the incidence of tuberculous pericarditis is 4% in developed countries<ref name="pmid3351140">{{cite journal| author=Sagristà-Sauleda J, Permanyer-Miralda G, Soler-Soler J| title=Tuberculous pericarditis: ten year experience with a prospective protocol for diagnosis and treatment. | journal=J Am Coll Cardiol | year= 1988 | volume= 11 | issue= 4 | pages= 724-8 | pmid=3351140 | doi= | pmc= | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=3351140  }} </ref>.
 
In a study in Western Cape Province of South Africa, tuberculous pericarditis was noted in 69.5% of patients who were referred for diagnostic [[pericardiocentesis]]. It should noted that one half of the patients were infected with [[HIV]]<ref name="pmid15962545">{{cite journal| author=Reuter H, Burgess LJ, Doubell AF| title=Epidemiology of pericardial effusions at a large academic hospital in South Africa. | journal=Epidemiol Infect | year= 2005 | volume= 133 | issue= 3 | pages= 393-9 | pmid=15962545 | doi= | pmc=PMC2870262 | url= }} </ref>. In contrast, the incidence of tuberculous pericarditis is 4% in developed countries<ref name="pmid3351140">{{cite journal| author=Sagristà-Sauleda J, Permanyer-Miralda G, Soler-Soler J| title=Tuberculous pericarditis: ten year experience with a prospective protocol for diagnosis and treatment. | journal=J Am Coll Cardiol | year= 1988 | volume= 11 | issue= 4 | pages= 724-8 | pmid=3351140 | doi= | pmc= | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=3351140  }} </ref>.
  
 
==Epidemiology and Demographics==
 
==Epidemiology and Demographics==
===Incidence===
 
*The incidence/prevalence of [disease name] is approximately [number range] per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
 
*In [year], the incidence/prevalence of [disease name] was estimated to be [number range] cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
 
 
 
===Prevalence===
 
===Prevalence===
*The incidence/prevalence of [disease name] is approximately [number range] per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
+
*The prevalence of tuberculous pericarditis is approximately 1-2% of patients with [[pulmonary tuberculosis]].<ref name="pmid2046135">{{cite journal| author=Fowler NO| title=Tuberculous pericarditis. | journal=JAMA | year= 1991 | volume= 266 | issue= 1 | pages= 99-103 | pmid=2046135 | doi= | pmc= | url= }} </ref><ref name="pmid7377888">{{cite journal| author=Larrieu AJ, Tyers GF, Williams EH, Derrick JR| title=Recent experience with tuberculous pericarditis. | journal=Ann Thorac Surg | year= 1980 | volume= 29 | issue= 5 | pages= 464-8 | pmid=7377888 | doi= | pmc= | url= }} </ref>
*In [year], the incidence/prevalence of [disease name] was estimated to be [number range] cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
 
*The prevalence of [disease/malignancy] is estimated to be [number] cases annually.
 
  
 
===Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate===
 
===Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate===
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===Age===
 
===Age===
*Patients of all age groups may develop [disease name].
+
*Patients of all age groups may develop tuberculous pericarditis.
*The incidence of [disease name] increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is [#] years.
+
*The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis increases with age.
*[Disease name] commonly affects individuals younger than/older than [number of years] years of age.
+
*Tuberculous pericarditis commonly affects elderly
*[Chronic disease name] is usually first diagnosed among [age group].
 
*[Acute disease name] commonly affects [age group].
 
  
 
===Race===
 
===Race===
*There is no racial predilection to [disease name].
+
 
*[Disease name] usually affects individuals of the [race 1] race. [Race 2] individuals are less likely to develop [disease name].
+
*Tuberculous pericarditis usually affects individuals of the black race.
 +
 
 
===Gender===
 
===Gender===
*[Disease name] affects men and women equally.
+
 
*[Gender 1] are more commonly affected by [disease name] than [gender 2]. The [gender 1] to [gender 2] ratio is approximately [number > 1] to 1.
+
*Men are more commonly affected by tuberculous pericarditis than female.
  
 
===Region===
 
===Region===
*The majority of [disease name] cases are reported in [geographical region].
+
*Since the prevalence of tuberculous pericarditis may follow tuberculosis prevalence, The majority of tuberculous pericarditis cases are reported in:
 
+
** South Africa
*[Disease name] is a common/rare disease that tends to affect [patient population 1] and [patient population 2].
+
***The incidence of tuberculosis in South Africa is '''834''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2">{{Cite web | title = WHO 2016 TB Report | url =http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250441/1/9789241565394-eng.pdf?ua=1}}</ref>
 +
***The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in South Africa is '''46''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
** Indonesia
 +
***The incidence of tuberculosis in Indonesia is '''395''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
***The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Indonesia is '''40''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
** Nigeria
 +
***The incidence of tuberculosis in Nigeria is '''322''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
***The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Nigeria is '''99''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
** Pakistan
 +
***The incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is '''270''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
***The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Pakistan is '''23''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
** India
 +
***The incidence of tuberculosis in India is '''217''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
***The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in India is '''36''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
** China
 +
***The incidence of tuberculosis in China is '''67''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
 +
***The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in  China is '''2.6''' per 100,000 of the overall population.<ref name="CDC2" />
  
 
===Developed Countries===
 
===Developed Countries===
 
+
After the resurgence of TB in the mid-1980s, the number of case counts steadily increased, peaking in 1992.  Since the 1992 TB resurgence peak in the United States, the number of TB cases reported has decreased annually. The year 2014 marked the twenty-second year of decline in the total number of TB cases reported in the United States since the peak of the resurgence.  In 2014, a total of 9,421 cases were reported from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). This represented a decline of 1.5% from 2013. The number of cases per 100,000 in 2013 and 2014 has been stable at a rate of 3.0.<ref name="CDC2">{{Cite web | title = WHO 2016 TB Report | url =http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250441/1/9789241565394-eng.pdf?ua=1}}</ref>    [[Image:US_trend.png|thumb|center|400 px|''Image 1'' - Reported TB Cases United States, 1982–2014<SMALL><SMALL>''[http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends.htm%7D - Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)]''<ref name="CDC2" /></SMALL></SMALL>|link=https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/File:US_trend.png]][[Image:US2014.png|thumb|center|400 px|''Image 2'' - TB Case Rates,* United States, 2014<SMALL><SMALL>''[https://http//www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends.htm%7D - Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)]''<ref name="CDC2" /></SMALL></SMALL>|link=https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/File:US2014.png]]<br />
===Developing Countries===
 
 
 
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
{{reflist|2}}

Revision as of 17:35, 4 December 2019

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Tuberculous pericarditis is found in approximately 1-2% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis It is the most common cause of pericarditis in Africa and other developing countries where TB is a major public health problem[1]. The incidence is increasing rapidly in the presence of HIV[2].

In a study in Western Cape Province of South Africa, tuberculous pericarditis was noted in 69.5% of patients who were referred for diagnostic pericardiocentesis. It should noted that one half of the patients were infected with HIV[3]. In contrast, the incidence of tuberculous pericarditis is 4% in developed countries[4].

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate

  • In [year], the incidence of [disease name] is approximately [number range] per 100,000 individuals with a case-fatality rate/mortality rate of [number range]%.
  • The case-fatality rate/mortality rate of [disease name] is approximately [number range].

Age

  • Patients of all age groups may develop tuberculous pericarditis.
  • The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis increases with age.
  • Tuberculous pericarditis commonly affects elderly

Race

  • Tuberculous pericarditis usually affects individuals of the black race.

Gender

  • Men are more commonly affected by tuberculous pericarditis than female.

Region

  • Since the prevalence of tuberculous pericarditis may follow tuberculosis prevalence, The majority of tuberculous pericarditis cases are reported in:
    • South Africa
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in South Africa is 834 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in South Africa is 46 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
    • Indonesia
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in Indonesia is 395 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Indonesia is 40 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
    • Nigeria
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in Nigeria is 322 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Nigeria is 99 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
    • Pakistan
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is 270 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in Pakistan is 23 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
    • India
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in India is 217 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in India is 36 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
    • China
      • The incidence of tuberculosis in China is 67 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]
      • The mortality of tuberculosis (excluding HIV-TB coinfection) in China is 2.6 per 100,000 of the overall population.[7]

Developed Countries

After the resurgence of TB in the mid-1980s, the number of case counts steadily increased, peaking in 1992. Since the 1992 TB resurgence peak in the United States, the number of TB cases reported has decreased annually. The year 2014 marked the twenty-second year of decline in the total number of TB cases reported in the United States since the peak of the resurgence. In 2014, a total of 9,421 cases were reported from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). This represented a decline of 1.5% from 2013. The number of cases per 100,000 in 2013 and 2014 has been stable at a rate of 3.0.[7]

Image 1 - Reported TB Cases United States, 1982–2014- Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)[7]
Image 2 - TB Case Rates,* United States, 2014- Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)[7]


References

  1. Mayosi BM, Volmink JA, Commerford PJ. Pericardial disease: an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment. In: Yusuf S, Cairns JA, Camm AJ, Fallen BJ, eds. Evidence-Based Cardiology. 2nd ed. London: BMJ Books; 2003: 735–748.
  2. Cegielski JP, Ramiya K, Lallinger GJ, Mtulia IA, Mbaga IM (1990). "Pericardial disease and human immunodeficiency virus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania". Lancet. 335 (8683): 209–12. PMID 1967676.
  3. Reuter H, Burgess LJ, Doubell AF (2005). "Epidemiology of pericardial effusions at a large academic hospital in South Africa". Epidemiol Infect. 133 (3): 393–9. PMC 2870262. PMID 15962545.
  4. Sagristà-Sauleda J, Permanyer-Miralda G, Soler-Soler J (1988). "Tuberculous pericarditis: ten year experience with a prospective protocol for diagnosis and treatment". J Am Coll Cardiol. 11 (4): 724–8. PMID 3351140.
  5. Fowler NO (1991). "Tuberculous pericarditis". JAMA. 266 (1): 99–103. PMID 2046135.
  6. Larrieu AJ, Tyers GF, Williams EH, Derrick JR (1980). "Recent experience with tuberculous pericarditis". Ann Thorac Surg. 29 (5): 464–8. PMID 7377888.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 "WHO 2016 TB Report" (PDF).

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