Difference between revisions of "Thymoma pathophysiology"

Jump to: navigation, search
(Pathogenesis)
(Gross Pathology)
Line 42: Line 42:
 
  | pmid = 4602050
 
  | pmid = 4602050
 
}}</ref>
 
}}</ref>
 
===Microscopic Pathology===
 
On microscopic histopathological analysis, round cells, with ample vacuolated cytoplasms, and fat droplets are characteristic findings of thymoma.
 
 
===Gross Pathology===
 
On gross pathology, a well circumscribed mass that is locally invasive is a characteristic finding of thymoma.
 
  
 
===Genetic Features===
 
===Genetic Features===
Line 57: Line 51:
 
| width="200pt" |'''Chromosomal Losses'''
 
| width="200pt" |'''Chromosomal Losses'''
 
|-
 
|-
|Type A || none || -6p  
+
|Type A || none || -6p
 
|-
 
|-
|Type AB || none || -5q21-22,-6q,-12p,-16q  
+
|Type AB || none || -5q21-22,-6q,-12p,-16q
 
|-
 
|-
|Type B3 || +1q || -6,-13q  
+
|Type B3 || +1q || -6,-13q
 
|}
 
|}
 +
===Microscopic Pathology===
 +
On microscopic histopathological analysis, round cells, with ample vacuolated cytoplasms, and fat droplets are characteristic findings of thymoma.
 +
 +
===Gross Pathology===
 +
On gross pathology, a well circumscribed mass that is locally invasive is a characteristic finding of thymoma.
 +
 
{|
 
{|
  

Revision as of 00:38, 16 August 2019

Thymoma Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Thymoma from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Thymoma pathophysiology On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Thymoma pathophysiology

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Thymoma pathophysiology

CDC on Thymoma pathophysiology

Thymoma pathophysiology in the news

Blogs on Thymoma pathophysiology

Directions to Hospitals Treating Thymoma

Risk calculators and risk factors for Thymoma pathophysiology

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Amr Marawan, M.D. [2] Ahmad Al Maradni, M.D. [3]

Overview

  • On gross pathology, a well circumscribed mass that is locally invasive is a characteristic finding of thymoma.
  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, round cells, with ample vacuolated cytoplasms, and fat droplets are characteristic findings of thymoma.

Pathophysiology

Physiology

  • Thymus is the site of maturation of T cells.
  • This makes thymus the primary center of adaptive immunity.

Pathogenesis

  • The exact pathogenesis of the primary tumor development is not well understood.
  • Primary tumors of thymus are relatively rare.
  • Thymoma is the most common type of primary tumor of thymus.
  • Thymoma is histologically comprised of abnormally conditioned T cells.
  • The mingling of these abnormal T cells into the circulation is believed to be involved in the associated autoimmune disorders.[1][2]

Genetic Features

Genetic alterations reported for the different WHO histological thymomasubtypes[3]

WHO Type Chromosomal Gains Chromosomal Losses
Type A none -6p
Type AB none -5q21-22,-6q,-12p,-16q
Type B3 +1q -6,-13q

Microscopic Pathology

On microscopic histopathological analysis, round cells, with ample vacuolated cytoplasms, and fat droplets are characteristic findings of thymoma.

Gross Pathology

On gross pathology, a well circumscribed mass that is locally invasive is a characteristic finding of thymoma.

Video

Associated Disorders

Approximately 30% of patients have their thymomas discovered because they have an associated autoimmune disorder. These disorders include:[4]

Type Diseases
Neuromuscular Diseases Myasthenia gravis, neuromyotonia, rippling muscle disease, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, encephalitis (limbic, cortical and brain stem), intestinal pseudoobstruction
Haematologic Autoimmune Diseases Anemia: pure red cell aplasia, pernicious anemia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia. Other isolated cytopenia: eosinophils,basophils, neutrophils, immunodeficiencies: hypogammaglobulinaemia +/- T-cell deficiencies (Good syndrome)
Dermatologies Diseases Pemphigus (foliaceus or paraneoplastic), lichen planus, alopecia areata
Endocrine Disorders Addison disease, graves disease, Cushing's disease
Renal and Hepatic Diseases Glomerulonephritis, autoimmune hepatitis
Systemic Autoimmune Diseases SLE, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease

References

  1. C. Buckley, D. Douek, J. Newsom-Davis, A. Vincent & N. Willcox (2001). "Mature, long-lived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are generated by the thymoma in myasthenia gravis". Annals of neurology. 50 (1): 64–72. PMID 11456312. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. J. V. Souadjian, P. Enriquez, M. N. Silverstein & J. M. Pepin (1974). "The spectrum of diseases associated with thymoma. Coincidence or syndrome?". Archives of internal medicine. 134 (2): 374–379. PMID 4602050. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. "http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/pat-gen/bb10/BB10.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 26 February 2014. External link in |title= (help)
  4. "http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/pat-gen/bb10/BB10.pdf" (PDF). External link in |title= (help)

Linked-in.jpg