Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. 
Synonyms and keywords: SIRS
In medicine, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state of the whole body (the "system") without a proven source of infection. It is a serious medical condition.
Definition of SIRS , 
Criteria for SIRS were agreed in 1992. SIRS can be diagnosed when two or more of the following are present:
- Heart rate > 90 beats per minute
- Temperature < 36 (96.8 °F) or > 38 °C (100.4 °F)
- Tachypnea > 20 breaths per minute or, on blood gas, a PaCO2 < 32 mm Hg
- White blood cell count < 4000 cells/mm³ or > 12000 cells/mm³ (< 4 x 109 or > 12 x 109 cells/L), or > 10% band forms (immature white blood cells / bandemia).
Difference between SIRS and sepsis
SIRS with a suspected or proven infection is called sepsis.
- SIRS + infection = sepsis
Complications of SIRS
SIRS can result in the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.
Causes of SIRS
- Severe trauma
- Postoperative complication
- Acute pancreatitis
- Immunodeficiency (such as AIDS)
Relation to cytokine storm
SIRS can be considered to be a subset of cytokine storm, a general term (not commonly used in clinical medicine) for cytokine dysregulation.
- ↑ Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, Bion J, Parker MM, Jaeschke R, Reinhart K, Angus DC, Brun-Buisson C, Beale R, Calandra T, Dhainaut JF, Gerlach H, Harvey M, Marini JJ, Marshall J, Ranieri M, Ramsay G, Sevransky J, Thompson BT, Townsend S, Vender JS, Zimmerman JL, Vincent JL (2008). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008". Critical Care Medicine. 36 (1): 296–327. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000298158.12101.41. PMID 18158437. Retrieved 2012-09-16. Unknown parameter
- ↑ Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, Dellinger RP, Fein AM, Knaus WA, Schein RM, Sibbald WJ. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Chest. 1992 Jun;101(6):1644-55. PMID 1303622.
- ↑ "American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis". Crit. Care Med. 20 (6): 864–74. 1992. PMID 1597042.
- ↑ Tslotou AG, Sakorafas GH, Anagnostopoulos G, Bramis J. Septic shock; current pathogenetic concepts from a clinical perspective. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Mar;11(3):RA76-85. PMID 15735579. Full Text.
- ↑ Santhanam S, Tolan RW. Sepsis. eMedicine.com, URL: http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic3033.htm Accessed on Mar 12, 2006.
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