Difference between revisions of "Subependymoma"

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*The prognosis of subependymoma is excellent with complete excision of the [[tumor]].<ref name="pmid23382616" /><ref name="pmid10320142">{{cite journal| author=Prayson RA, Suh JH| title=Subependymomas: clinicopathologic study of 14 tumors, including comparative MIB-1 immunohistochemical analysis with other ependymal neoplasms. | journal=Arch Pathol Lab Med | year= 1999 | volume= 123 | issue= 4 | pages= 306-9 | pmid=10320142 | doi=10.1043/0003-9985(1999)123<0306:S>2.0.CO;2 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=10320142  }} </ref>
 
*The prognosis of subependymoma is excellent with complete excision of the [[tumor]].<ref name="pmid23382616" /><ref name="pmid10320142">{{cite journal| author=Prayson RA, Suh JH| title=Subependymomas: clinicopathologic study of 14 tumors, including comparative MIB-1 immunohistochemical analysis with other ependymal neoplasms. | journal=Arch Pathol Lab Med | year= 1999 | volume= 123 | issue= 4 | pages= 306-9 | pmid=10320142 | doi=10.1043/0003-9985(1999)123<0306:S>2.0.CO;2 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=10320142  }} </ref>
 
+
*Common complications of subependymoma are "hydrocephalus" and focal neurological deficits due to space occupying of the tomur mass.<ref name="pmid22747714">{{cite journal| author=Jain A, Amin AG, Jain P, Burger P, Jallo GI, Lim M et al.| title=Subependymoma: clinical features and surgical outcomes. | journal=Neurol Res | year= 2012 | volume= 34 | issue= 7 | pages= 677-84 | pmid=22747714 | doi=10.1179/1743132812Y.0000000064 | pmc=4618470 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=22747714  }} </ref>
*The majority of patients with [disease name] remain asymptomatic for [duration/years].
 
*Early clinical features include [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
 
*If left untreated, [#%] of patients with [disease name] may progress to develop [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
 
*Common complications of [disease name] include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
 
*Prognosis is generally [excellent/good/poor], and the [1/5/10­year mortality/survival rate] of patients with [disease name] is approximately [#%].
 
  
 
== Diagnosis ==
 
== Diagnosis ==

Revision as of 22:11, 12 July 2019

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mohamadmostafa Jahansouz M.D.[2]Sujit Routray, M.D. [3]

Historical Perspective

  • Subependymomas was first discovered by Ilya Mark Scheinker a Russian physician in 1945.[1]

Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis

Gross Pathology

Microscopic Pathology

  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, subependymoma is characterized by microcystic spaces and bland appearing cells without appreciable nuclear atypia or mitoses. The nuclei tend to form clusters. No high grade features (mitoses, Ki-67 / MIBI index > 1.5%, necrosis) are present. Loose pseudorosettes are observed.[4]

Immunohistochemistry

  • Subependymoma is demonstrated by positivity to tumor marker such as GFAP.[4]
  • Also mixed populations of cells may be variably positive for:[5]

Differentiating Subependymoma from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Frequency and incidence

  • The frequency of asymptomatic subependymomas was 0.4% in 1,000 serial routine necropsies and 0.7% in symptomatic subependymomas from 1,000 serial surgical specimens of intracranial neoplasms.[7]
  • The incidence of subependymoma was estimated to be 0.7 incidence cases per 100,000 of patients with pathologically proven intracranial neoplasms.[8]

Age

  • Patients of all age groups may develop subependymoma.
  • Subependymoma is a rare disease that tends to affect middle-aged adults and the elderly population (typically 5th to 6th decades).[9]

Gender

  • Males are more commonly affected with subependymoma than females. The male to female ratio is approximately 2.3 to 1.[9]

Risk Factors

  • The risk factors in the development of subependymoma are not well defined.

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Natural History

Complications

Prognosis

  • The prognosis of subependymoma is excellent with complete excision of the tumor.[2][11]
  • Common complications of subependymoma are "hydrocephalus" and focal neurological deficits due to space occupying of the tomur mass.[3]

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met:
  • [criterion 1]
  • [criterion 2]
  • [criterion 3]
  • [criterion 4]

Symptoms

  • Typically patients of subependymoma are asymptomatic and small lesions are discovered incidentally.
  • Symptoms of subependymoma include:[12]

Physical Examination

  • Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance].
  • Physical examination may be remarkable for:
  • [finding 1]
  • [finding 2]
  • [finding 3]
  • [finding 4]
  • [finding 5]
  • [finding 6]

Laboratory Findings

  • There are no specific laboratory findings associated with [disease name].
  • A [positive/negative] [test name] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • An [elevated/reduced] concentration of [serum/blood/urinary/CSF/other] [lab test] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • Other laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of [disease name] include [abnormal test 1], [abnormal test 2], and [abnormal test 3].

Imaging Findings

  • Head CT scan is helpful in the diagnosis of subependymoma. On CT scan, subependymoma is characterized by:[13]
  • Iso- and hypodense intraventricular mass
  • Positive mass effect
  • No enhancement
  • If large, it may have cystic or even calcific components
  • No vasogenic edema
  • Brain MRI is helpful in the diagnosis of subependymoma. On MRI, subependymoma is characterized by:
MRI component Findings

T1 weighted image

  • Iso - hypointense compared to white matter
  • Homogeneous but may be heterogeneous in larger lesions

T2 weighted image

  • Hyperintense compared to adjacent white and grey matter
  • Heterogeneity may be seen in larger lesions, with susceptibility related signal drop out due to calcifications
  • No adjacent parenchymal edema (as no brain invasion is present)

T1 weighted image with contrast

  • Little or no enhancement

Surgery

  • Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for [disease name].
  • [Surgical procedure] in conjunction with [chemotherapy/radiation] is the most common approach to the treatment of [disease name].
  • [Surgical procedure] can only be performed for patients with [disease stage] [disease name].

Prevention

  • There are no primary preventive measures available for [disease name].
  • Effective measures for the primary prevention of [disease name] include [measure1], [measure2], and [measure3].
  • Once diagnosed and successfully treated, patients with [disease name] are followed-up every [duration]. Follow-up testing includes [test 1], [test 2], and [test 3].

References

  1. Kurian KM, Jones DT, Marsden F, Openshaw SW, Pearson DM, Ichimura K; et al. (2008). "Genome-wide analysis of subependymomas shows underlying chromosomal copy number changes involving chromosomes 6, 7, 8 and 14 in a proportion of cases". Brain Pathol. 18 (4): 469–73. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3639.2008.00148.x. PMC 2659379. PMID 18397339.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Saad AF, Bidiwala SB, Layton KF, Snipes GJ, Opatowsky MJ (2013). "Fourth ventricular subependymoma presenting as worsening headache". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 26 (1): 52–4. PMC 3523772. PMID 23382616.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Jain A, Amin AG, Jain P, Burger P, Jallo GI, Lim M; et al. (2012). "Subependymoma: clinical features and surgical outcomes". Neurol Res. 34 (7): 677–84. doi:10.1179/1743132812Y.0000000064. PMC 4618470. PMID 22747714.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Pathology of subependymoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/subependymoma. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  5. D'Amico RS, Praver M, Zanazzi GJ, Englander ZK, Sims JS, Samanamud JL; et al. (2017). "Subependymomas Are Low-Grade Heterogeneous Glial Neoplasms Defined by Subventricular Zone Lineage Markers". World Neurosurg. 107: 451–463. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2017.08.009. PMID 28804038.
  6. Intraventricular neoplasms and lesions. Dr Henry Knipe and Dr Vinod G Maller et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/intraventricular-neoplasms-and-lesions. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  7. Matsumura A, Ahyai A, Hori A, Schaake T (1989). "Intracerebral subependymomas. Clinical and neuropathological analyses with special reference to the possible existence of a less benign variant". Acta Neurochir (Wien). 96 (1–2): 15–25. PMID 2929389.
  8. Kurukumbi M, Muley A, Ramidi G, Wynn Z, Trouth AJ (2011). "A rare case of subependymoma with an atypical presentation: a case report". Case Rep Neurol. 3 (3): 227–32. doi:10.1159/000333061. PMC 3223030. PMID 22121350.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Epidemiology of subependymoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/subependymoma. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  10. 10.0 10.1 Clinical presentation of subependymoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/subependymoma. Accessed on January 12, 2016
  11. Prayson RA, Suh JH (1999). "Subependymomas: clinicopathologic study of 14 tumors, including comparative MIB-1 immunohistochemical analysis with other ependymal neoplasms". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 123 (4): 306–9. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(1999)123<0306:S>2.0.CO;2. PMID 10320142.
  12. KE, Changshu. "Subependymoma: a case report and the review of literatures". doi:10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2011.01.021.
  13. Radiographic features of subependymoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2016. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/subependymoma. Accessed on January 12, 2016


References


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