Difference between revisions of "Sandbox:ab"

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(Pathophysiology)
(Pathophysiology)
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==Pathophysiology==
 
==Pathophysiology==
[[Potassium]] is one of the [[intracellular]] [[cations]]. Any disorder of potassium serum levels can disturb the transmembrane [[potential]] and renders excitable cells ([[nerve]] and [[muscle]]) [[Hyperpolarization (biology)|hyperpolariz]]<nowiki/>ed and less excitable. However, [[Cardiac|cardiac cells]] don't obey this rule and become hyperexcitable. [[Potassium]] regulation is essential to maintain a normal activity in cells. Any impairment in potassium serum levels will have severe consequences on several organs especially the [[heart]] and the [[nervous system]]. Tyoically, total potassium excretion in the stool is low and most ingested potassium is absorbed. The [[Kidney|kidne]]<nowiki/>y is the primary regulator of potassium balance through excretion (the kidney excretes 90-95% of dietary potassium); the gut excretes a minimal amount of dietary potassium (approximately 10%).
+
[[Potassium]] is one of the [[intracellular]] [[cations]]. Any disorder of potassium serum levels can disturb the transmembrane [[potential]] and renders excitable cells ([[nerve]] and [[muscle]]) [[Hyperpolarization (biology)|hyperpolariz]]<nowiki/>ed and less excitable. However, [[Cardiac|cardiac cells]] don't obey this rule and become hyperexcitable. [[Potassium]] regulation is essential to maintain a normal activity in cells. Any impairment in potassium serum levels will have severe consequences on several organs especially the [[heart]] and the [[nervous system]]. Typically, total potassium excretion in the stool is low and most ingested potassium is absorbed. The [[Kidney|kidne]]<nowiki/>y is the primary regulator of potassium balance through excretion (the kidney excretes 90-95% of dietary potassium); the gut excretes a minimal amount of dietary potassium (approximately 10%).
 +
 
  
 
==[[Hypokalemia causes|Causes]]==
 
==[[Hypokalemia causes|Causes]]==

Revision as of 01:11, 31 May 2020

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Aida Javanbakht, M.D. Aditya Govindavarjhulla, M.B.B.S. [3] ; Assistant Editor(s)-In-Chief: Jack Khouri

Synonyms and Keywords: Hypokalaemia; potassium levels low (plasma or serum); potassium - low; low blood potassium; potassium depletion

Overview

Historical Perspective

Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology

Potassium is one of the intracellular cations. Any disorder of potassium serum levels can disturb the transmembrane potential and renders excitable cells (nerve and muscle) hyperpolarized and less excitable. However, cardiac cells don't obey this rule and become hyperexcitable. Potassium regulation is essential to maintain a normal activity in cells. Any impairment in potassium serum levels will have severe consequences on several organs especially the heart and the nervous system. Typically, total potassium excretion in the stool is low and most ingested potassium is absorbed. The kidney is the primary regulator of potassium balance through excretion (the kidney excretes 90-95% of dietary potassium); the gut excretes a minimal amount of dietary potassium (approximately 10%).


Causes

Differentiating Hypokalemia from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Algorithm | History and Symptoms | Physical Examination | Laboratory Findings | Electrocardiogram | Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy | Primary Prevention | Secondary Prevention | Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy | Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

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