Difference between revisions of "Sandbox:Sara Haddadi"

Jump to: navigation, search
Line 36: Line 36:
  
  
 
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+underlying medical conditions that increase a person’s risk of severe illness from COVID-19
 +
!style="background: #4479BA; width: 200px;" | {{fontcolor|#FFF|Level of Evidence}}
 +
!style="background: #4479BA; width: 200px;" | {{fontcolor|#FFF|Condition}}
 +
|-
 +
|style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC; font-weight: bold" |[[Strongest and Most Consistent Evidence]]
 +
|
 +
*Serious heart conditions, such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, or cardiomyopathies
 +
*Cancer
 +
*Chronic kidney disease
 +
*COPD
 +
*Obesity (BMI> 30)
 +
*Sickle cell disease
 +
*Solid organ transplantation
 +
|-
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC; font-weight: bold" |[[Mixed Evidence]]
 +
|[[Left anterior fascicular block]]
 +
|-
 +
|style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC; font-weight: bold" |[[Limited Evidence]]
 +
|_
 +
|}
  
  
Line 125: Line 145:
 
*In the level of cardiac tissue: minimal change to interstitial inflammatory infiltration and myocyte necrosis
 
*In the level of cardiac tissue: minimal change to interstitial inflammatory infiltration and myocyte necrosis
 
*In the level of vasculature: micro-thrombosis and vascular inflammation<ref name="pmid32354800">{{cite journal| author=Kang Y, Chen T, Mui D, Ferrari V, Jagasia D, Scherrer-Crosbie M | display-authors=etal| title=Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in covid-19. | journal=Heart | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32354800 | doi=10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317056 | pmc=7211105 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32354800  }} </ref>
 
*In the level of vasculature: micro-thrombosis and vascular inflammation<ref name="pmid32354800">{{cite journal| author=Kang Y, Chen T, Mui D, Ferrari V, Jagasia D, Scherrer-Crosbie M | display-authors=etal| title=Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in covid-19. | journal=Heart | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32354800 | doi=10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317056 | pmc=7211105 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32354800  }} </ref>
 
==[[Xyz causes|Causes]]==
 
 
==[[Xyz differential diagnosis|Differentiating Xyz from other Diseases]]==
 
 
==[[Xyz epidemiology and demographics|Epidemiology and Demographics]]==
 
 
==[[Xyz risk factors|Risk Factors]]==
 
 
==[[Xyz screening|Screening]]==
 
 
==[[Xyz natural history, complications and prognosis|Natural History, Complications and Prognosis]]==
 
  
 
==Diagnosis==
 
==Diagnosis==
Line 158: Line 166:
 
[[Xyz medical therapy|Medical Therapy]] | [[Xyz interventions|Interventions]] | [[Xyz surgery|Surgery]] | [[Xyz primary prevention|Primary Prevention]] | [[Xyz secondary prevention|Secondary Prevention]] | [[Xyz cost-effectiveness of therapy|Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy]] | [[Xyz future or investigational therapies|Future or Investigational Therapies]]
 
[[Xyz medical therapy|Medical Therapy]] | [[Xyz interventions|Interventions]] | [[Xyz surgery|Surgery]] | [[Xyz primary prevention|Primary Prevention]] | [[Xyz secondary prevention|Secondary Prevention]] | [[Xyz cost-effectiveness of therapy|Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy]] | [[Xyz future or investigational therapies|Future or Investigational Therapies]]
 
In patients with ACS, and COVID-19, treatment should follow the guidelines of the updated Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.<ref name="pmid32354800">{{cite journal| author=Kang Y, Chen T, Mui D, Ferrari V, Jagasia D, Scherrer-Crosbie M | display-authors=etal| title=Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in covid-19. | journal=Heart | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32354800 | doi=10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317056 | pmc=7211105 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32354800  }} </ref> <ref name="pmid32212409">{{cite journal| author=Szerlip M, Anwaruddin S, Aronow HD, Cohen MG, Daniels MJ, Dehghani P | display-authors=etal| title=Considerations for cardiac catheterization laboratory procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic perspectives from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Emerging Leader Mentorship (SCAI ELM) Members and Graduates. | journal=Catheter Cardiovasc Interv | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32212409 | doi=10.1002/ccd.28887 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32212409  }} </ref>
 
In patients with ACS, and COVID-19, treatment should follow the guidelines of the updated Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.<ref name="pmid32354800">{{cite journal| author=Kang Y, Chen T, Mui D, Ferrari V, Jagasia D, Scherrer-Crosbie M | display-authors=etal| title=Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in covid-19. | journal=Heart | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32354800 | doi=10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317056 | pmc=7211105 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32354800  }} </ref> <ref name="pmid32212409">{{cite journal| author=Szerlip M, Anwaruddin S, Aronow HD, Cohen MG, Daniels MJ, Dehghani P | display-authors=etal| title=Considerations for cardiac catheterization laboratory procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic perspectives from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Emerging Leader Mentorship (SCAI ELM) Members and Graduates. | journal=Catheter Cardiovasc Interv | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32212409 | doi=10.1002/ccd.28887 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32212409  }} </ref>
 
==Case Studies==
 
[[Xyz case study one|Case #1]]
 
 
[[Category: (name of the system)]]
 
 
 
 
==Risk Factors==
 
There are no established risk factors for [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
The most potent risk factor in the development of [disease name] is [risk factor 1]. Other risk factors include [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].
 
 
OR
 
 
Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] include [risk factor 1], [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].
 
 
OR
 
 
Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] may be occupational, environmental, genetic, and viral.
 
 
==Screening==
 
There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for [disease/malignancy].
 
 
OR
 
 
According to the [guideline name], screening for [disease name] is not recommended.
 
 
OR
 
 
According to the [guideline name], screening for [disease name] by [test 1] is recommended every [duration] among patients with [condition 1], [condition 2], and [condition 3].
 
 
==Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis==
 
If left untreated, [#]% of patients with [disease name] may progress to develop [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
Common complications of [disease name] include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
Prognosis is generally excellent/good/poor, and the 1/5/10-year mortality/survival rate of patients with [disease name] is approximately [#]%.
 
 
==Diagnosis==
 
===Diagnostic Study of Choice===
 
The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met: [criterion 1], [criterion 2], [criterion 3], and [criterion 4].
 
 
OR
 
 
The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [criteria name] criteria, which include [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [definition name] definition, which includes [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
There are no established criteria for the diagnosis of [disease name].
 
  
 
===History and Symptoms===
 
===History and Symptoms===
Line 235: Line 183:
 
===Physical Examination===
 
===Physical Examination===
 
Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance]. Physical examination of patients with [disease name] is usually remarkable for [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance]. Physical examination of patients with [disease name] is usually remarkable for [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
OR
 
 
Common physical examination findings of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
The presence of [finding(s)] on physical examination is diagnostic of [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
The presence of [finding(s)] on physical examination is highly suggestive of [disease name].
 
 
===Laboratory Findings===
 
An elevated/reduced concentration of serum/blood/urinary/CSF/other [lab test] is diagnostic of [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
Laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of [disease name] include [abnormal test 1], [abnormal test 2], and [abnormal test 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
[Test] is usually normal among patients with [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
Some patients with [disease name] may have elevated/reduced concentration of [test], which is usually suggestive of [progression/complication].
 
 
OR
 
 
There are no diagnostic laboratory findings associated with [disease name].
 
 
===Electrocardiogram===
 
There are no ECG findings associated with [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
An ECG may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an ECG suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
 
===X-ray===
 
There are no x-ray findings associated with [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
An x-ray may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an x-ray suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
There are no x-ray findings associated with [disease name]. However, an x-ray may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
 
 
===Echocardiography or Ultrasound===
 
There are no echocardiography/ultrasound  findings associated with [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
Echocardiography/ultrasound  may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an echocardiography/ultrasound suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
There are no echocardiography/ultrasound  findings associated with [disease name]. However, an echocardiography/ultrasound  may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
 
 
===CT scan===
 
There are no CT scan findings associated with [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
[Location] CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on CT scan suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
There are no CT scan findings associated with [disease name]. However, a CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
 
 
===MRI===
 
There are no MRI findings associated with [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
[Location] MRI may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on MRI suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
There are no MRI findings associated with [disease name]. However, a MRI may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
 
 
===Other Imaging Findings===
 
There are no other imaging findings associated with [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
[Imaging modality] may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an [imaging modality] suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
 
===Other Diagnostic Studies===
 
There are no other diagnostic studies associated with [disease name].
 
 
OR
 
 
[Diagnostic study] may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
 
OR
 
 
Other diagnostic studies for [disease name] include [diagnostic study 1], which demonstrates [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3], and [diagnostic study 2], which demonstrates [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
 
  
 
==Treatment==
 
==Treatment==
 
In patients with ACS, and COVID-19, treatment should follow the guidelines of the updated Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.<ref name="pmid32354800">{{cite journal| author=Kang Y, Chen T, Mui D, Ferrari V, Jagasia D, Scherrer-Crosbie M | display-authors=etal| title=Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in covid-19. | journal=Heart | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32354800 | doi=10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317056 | pmc=7211105 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32354800  }} </ref> <ref name="pmid32212409">{{cite journal| author=Szerlip M, Anwaruddin S, Aronow HD, Cohen MG, Daniels MJ, Dehghani P | display-authors=etal| title=Considerations for cardiac catheterization laboratory procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic perspectives from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Emerging Leader Mentorship (SCAI ELM) Members and Graduates. | journal=Catheter Cardiovasc Interv | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32212409 | doi=10.1002/ccd.28887 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32212409  }} </ref>
 
In patients with ACS, and COVID-19, treatment should follow the guidelines of the updated Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.<ref name="pmid32354800">{{cite journal| author=Kang Y, Chen T, Mui D, Ferrari V, Jagasia D, Scherrer-Crosbie M | display-authors=etal| title=Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in covid-19. | journal=Heart | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32354800 | doi=10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317056 | pmc=7211105 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32354800  }} </ref> <ref name="pmid32212409">{{cite journal| author=Szerlip M, Anwaruddin S, Aronow HD, Cohen MG, Daniels MJ, Dehghani P | display-authors=etal| title=Considerations for cardiac catheterization laboratory procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic perspectives from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Emerging Leader Mentorship (SCAI ELM) Members and Graduates. | journal=Catheter Cardiovasc Interv | year= 2020 | volume=  | issue=  | pages=  | pmid=32212409 | doi=10.1002/ccd.28887 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=32212409  }} </ref>

Revision as of 19:36, 2 August 2020

  1. Sara Haddadi MD, Miami FL

[1]

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

In a case series with 187 patients who had confirmed COVID-19, 27.8% of patients had a myocardial injury, which caused cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. The result was significantly higher mortality among patients with myocardial injury.

  • Based on the Troponin level The mortality during hospitalization was shown to be as below:
    • 7.62% for patients without underlying CVD and normal TnT levels
    • 13.33% for those with underlying CVD and normal TnT levels
    • 37.50% for those without underlying CVD but elevated TnT levels
    • 69.44% for those with underlying CVD and elevated TnTs.[2]


Classification of Infra-Hisian Block
Types of Infra-Hisian Block Sub-type
Type 2 second degree heart block (Mobitz II) _
Left bundle branch block Left anterior fascicular block
Right bundle branch block _


Covid19. [1]


underlying medical conditions that increase a person’s risk of severe illness from COVID-19
Level of Evidence Condition
Strongest and Most Consistent Evidence
  • Serious heart conditions, such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, or cardiomyopathies
  • Cancer
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • COPD
  • Obesity (BMI> 30)
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Solid organ transplantation
Mixed Evidence Left anterior fascicular block
Limited Evidence _


References

  1. Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, Chaitman BR, Bax JJ, Morrow DA; et al. (2018). "Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (2018)". J Am Coll Cardiol. 72 (18): 2231–2264. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.1038. PMID 30153967.
  2. Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, Wu X, Zhang L, He T; et al. (2020). "Cardiovascular Implications of Fatal Outcomes of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". JAMA Cardiol. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1017. PMC 7101506 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32219356 Check |pmid= value (help).

6/20/2020

Acute Coronary Syndromes

Pathophysiology

The mechanism of COVID-19 cardiovascular injury has not been fully understood and is likely multifactorial.

  • SARS-CoV-2 virus attaches to ACE 2 protein for ligand binding before entering the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
    • Based on single-cell RNA sequencing more than 7.5% of myocardial cells have positive ACE2 expression. This protein can mediate the entry of SARS-CoV-2 and result in direct cardiotoxicity.
  • The cytokine release caused by the virus may lead to vascular inflammation, plaque instability, myocardial inflammation, a hypercoagulable state, or direct myocardial suppression.

Pathological changes:

  • In the level of cardiac tissue: minimal change to interstitial inflammatory infiltration and myocyte necrosis
  • In the level of vasculature: micro-thrombosis and vascular inflammation[1]

ST-Elevation MI (STEMI)

A US model from 9 major centers showed a 38% drop in total STEMI activations during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a 40% reduction noted in Spain as well. there was also a delay between the first presentation to a medical encounter up to 318 min. This is important since COVID-19 can potentially be a cause of STEMI through microthrombi, cytokine storm, coronary spasm, or direct endothelial injury.[2]

  • Potential etiologies for the reduction in STEMI PPCI activations:
    • avoidance of medical care due to social distancing or concerns of contracting COVID-19 in the hospital
    • STEMI misdiagnosis
    • increased use of pharmacological reperfusion due to COVID-19

It is very important to realize if patients' anxiety is the reason behind decreasing the presentation of STEMI to U.S. hospitals.[3]

  • Treatment of STEMI & COVID-19: The specific protocols for the treatment have been evolving. Early recommendations showed intravenous thrombolysis as first-line therapy for STEMI patients with confirmed COVID-19 since most hospitals do not have protected cardiac catheterization labs.[2]

Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndrome include:[4]

Treatment

In patients with ACS, and COVID-19 treatment should follow the guideline of the updated Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions guidelines.[5]


Xyz Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Xyz from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Interventions

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Sandbox:Sara Haddadi On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Sandbox:Sara Haddadi

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Sandbox:Sara Haddadi

CDC on Sandbox:Sara Haddadi

Sandbox:Sara Haddadi in the news

Blogs on Sandbox:Sara Haddadi

Directions to Hospitals Treating Psoriasis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Sandbox:Sara Haddadi

For patient information, click here

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [2]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:

Synonyms and Keywords: Novel coronavirus, covid-19, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Wuhan coronavirus


Overview

  • COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular comorbidities have higher mortality.
  • Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and Cardiovascular disease seem to be more prevalent in both the USA and China. [1]
  • In a case series with 187 patients who had confirmed COVID-19, 27.8% of patients had a myocardial injury, which caused cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. The result was significantly higher mortality among patients with myocardial injury.
  • It seems to be advisable to triage patients with COVID-19 based on their underlying CVD for a more aggressive treatment plan.
  • The mortality during hospitalization was shown to be 7.62% for patients without underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 13.33% for those with underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 37.50% for those without underlying CVD but elevated TnT levels, and 69.44% for those with underlying CVD and elevated TnTs.[6]

Historical Perspective

Classification

ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)

A US model from 9 major centers showed a 38% drop in total STEMI activations during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a 40% reduction noted in Spain as well. there was also a delay between the first presentation to a medical encounter up to 318 min. This is important since COVID-19 can potentially be a cause of STEMI through microthrombi, cytokine storm, coronary spasm, or direct endothelial injury.[2]

  • Potential etiologies for the reduction in STEMI PPCI activations:
    • avoidance of medical care due to social distancing or concerns of contracting COVID-19 in the hospital
    • STEMI misdiagnosis
    • increased use of pharmacological reperfusion due to COVID-19

It is very important to realize if patients' anxiety is the reason behind decreasing the presentation of STEMI to U.S. hospitals.[3]

  • Treatment of STEMI & COVID-19: The specific protocols for the treatment have been evolving. Early recommendations showed intravenous thrombolysis as first-line therapy for STEMI patients with confirmed COVID-19 since most hospitals do not have protected cardiac catheterization labs.[2]

Pathophysiology

The mechanism of COVID-19 cardiovascular injury has not been fully understood and is likely multifactorial.

  • SARS-CoV-2 virus attaches to ACE 2 protein for ligand binding before entering the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
    • Based on single-cell RNA sequencing more than 7.5% of myocardial cells have positive ACE2 expression. This protein can mediate the entry of SARS-CoV-2 and result in direct cardiotoxicity.
  • The cytokine release caused by the virus may lead to vascular inflammation, plaque instability, myocardial inflammation, a hypercoagulable state, or direct myocardial suppression.

Pathological changes:

  • In the level of cardiac tissue: minimal change to interstitial inflammatory infiltration and myocyte necrosis
  • In the level of vasculature: micro-thrombosis and vascular inflammation[1]

Diagnosis

Diagnostic study of choice | History and Symptoms | Physical Examination | Laboratory Findings | Electrocardiogram | X-Ray Findings | Echocardiography and Ultrasound | CT-Scan Findings | MRI Findings | Other Imaging Findings | Other Diagnostic Studies

History and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndrome include:[4]

Treatment

Medical Therapy | Interventions | Surgery | Primary Prevention | Secondary Prevention | Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy | Future or Investigational Therapies In patients with ACS, and COVID-19, treatment should follow the guidelines of the updated Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.[1] [5]

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance]. Physical examination of patients with [disease name] is usually remarkable for [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Treatment

In patients with ACS, and COVID-19, treatment should follow the guidelines of the updated Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.[1] [5]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Kang Y, Chen T, Mui D, Ferrari V, Jagasia D, Scherrer-Crosbie M; et al. (2020). "Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in covid-19". Heart. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317056. PMC 7211105 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32354800 Check |pmid= value (help).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Ullah W, Sattar Y, Saeed R, Ahmad A, Boigon MI, Haas DC; et al. (2020). "As the COVID-19 pandemic drags on, where have all the STEMIs gone?". Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 29: 100550. doi:10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100550. PMC 7261452 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32550258 Check |pmid= value (help).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Garcia S, Albaghdadi MS, Meraj PM, Schmidt C, Garberich R, Jaffer FA; et al. (2020). "Reduction in ST-Segment Elevation Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory Activations in the United States During COVID-19 Pandemic". J Am Coll Cardiol. 75 (22): 2871–2872. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2020.04.011. PMC 7151384 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32283124 Check |pmid= value (help).
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Abidov A, Rozanski A, Hachamovitch R, Hayes SW, Aboul-Enein F, Cohen I; et al. (2005). "Prognostic significance of dyspnea in patients referred for cardiac stress testing". N Engl J Med. 353 (18): 1889–98. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa042741. PMID 16267320. Review in: Evid Based Med. 2006 Jun;11(3):91
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Szerlip M, Anwaruddin S, Aronow HD, Cohen MG, Daniels MJ, Dehghani P; et al. (2020). "Considerations for cardiac catheterization laboratory procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic perspectives from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Emerging Leader Mentorship (SCAI ELM) Members and Graduates". Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. doi:10.1002/ccd.28887. PMID 32212409 Check |pmid= value (help).
  6. Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, Wu X, Zhang L, He T; et al. (2020). "Cardiovascular Implications of Fatal Outcomes of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". JAMA Cardiol. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1017. PMC 7101506 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32219356 Check |pmid= value (help).